AIOU Curriculum Planning and Evaluation-II 6564 Solved Old Papers 2021
Level /Program: Post Graduation (Master/Diploma)
Title/Course Code: Curriculum Planning and Evaluation-II (6564)
Semester Terminal Exam Autumn 2020
AIOU Curriculum Planning and Evaluation-II 6564 Solved Old Papers 2021
Q.no.1: Describe in detail how the principles of curriculum development in Islam influenced curriculum development in the subcontinent Curriculum Development in Islamic Perspective
Islamic Concept of Curriculum
- Muslim scholars have made serious endeavors to define the concept of Islamic education and then to develop a genuine Islamic education model based on the basic tenets of aqidat al-towhead` (principle of faith).
- This reformation of education has envisioned to produce the new Muslim generation, which is capable of fulfilling its role as khalifatullah (vicegerent of God)i.e. responsible for the development and maintenance of civilization and its resources.
- In another word, Islamic education is obliged to deal with the overall development of the individual, i.e. spiritual, intellectual, imaginative, physical, scientific, linguistic, both individually and collectively. In sum, the ultimate of Islamic education is in `the realization of complete submission to Allah on the level of the individual, the community and humanity at large.
- A newly integrated Islamic curriculum and subject matter for contemporary Islamic schools need to be devised to promote Islamic Identity solidarity for the Ummah. • It is for the need of the young generations to be instilled with pure Islamic values and beliefs from the beginning in a very comprehensive, critical, and creative manner by using a newly revised integrated and dynamic approach to education.
Islamic religious curricular influence curriculum development in the subcontinent
- Islamic religious curricular has gone through four distinct periods in Islamic history.
- The first period is the period of development which started with the resurgence of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W) in Makkah until the end of the Umayyad period. The main characteristics of the religious curriculum of this period are:
- purely Arabic in nature
- strengthening the basis of Islamic religion and spreading its teaching • based on religious sciences and Arabic grammar
- concentrate more on the study of Hadith and jurisprudence • concentrate more on Arabic grammar and literature
- the initial study of foreign languages During this period, the mosque was the center of activities of the Islamic society and education was an important part of those activities.
The second period is the flourishing period of education starting in the East with the emergence of the Abbasid dynasty until the downfall by Tartar in 659H/1258 M whereas in the Western part of the Islamic Empire the important center is Andalusia, especially under the rules of Umayyad Caliphate. During this period the curriculum was expanded to include nonreligious sciences, as well as the center, also expanded to include Makkah, AlMadinah in Hijaz; Basrah, and Kufah in Iraq; Damascus in Sham (Syria); Cairo in Egypt and Granada and Seville in Andalusia.
- The third period was the period of weaknesses and decadence which started in the East and North Africa with the resurgence of the Ottoman Empire which lasted until the independence of Muslim countries. The most important characteristics of this period are: • the entire curriculum was based on the transmitted knowledge
- the decline of the Arabic language
- the method was based on memorization • the deterioration of scientific research and thinking process
- the spread of the method of summarization and repetition of what was made by early scholars.
The fourth period is known as the period of revival, awakening, and rebuilding education in Muslim countries which started subsequent to the independence of these countries. This process is still going on to the present time. The most important characteristics of religious education during this period are as follows:
- adoption of Western educational system • increasing concern on natural as well as human sciences
- penetration of Western culture
- an attempt toward eliminating dualism between modern education and religious education
Aims and Objective of Islamic Education
A Different Level of Schooling
- Aims and objectives are constructed beforehand to know the behavioral outcome of the Muslim learners. For the purpose of teaching Islamic education in the formal system of education, the teacher has to formulate beforehand the aims and objectives of Islamic education at a different levels of schooling.
The University Level
- Sharif, Hadi (1983) formulated the aims of Islamic education at the university level as follows: • (a) “To speak of Islam is to speak of Truth or Reality, of the hierarchy of Reality and of virtues. Consequently, the fundamental goal and the main function of the Islamic education and teaching system at the University level consists in awakening the spiritual insight and the intellectual ability in the human receptacle.
Construction of Objectives of Islamic Education in Muslim School Curriculum:
In totality we can classify different educational objectives into the following seven broad categories:
- Knowledge level
- Understanding level
- Skill level
- Values level
- Interest level
- Attitude level
Q.no.2: Why curriculum change is considered an essential process of educational development
- Change is a constant of nature. It always brings improvement. It always occurs continuously. Technological advancement and the explosion of knowledge are the basic reasons for wearing styles of change. Change is an ongoing almost unconscious process that involves reworking familiar elements into a new relationship
DEFINITION Curriculum change can be defined as an effort made by education authorities to change and adapt their aims and objectives of teaching and learning according to the values, culture, philosophy as well resources at their disposal. ( the commonwealth secretariat Module 3 1998)
Curriculum changes can be defined as, making the curriculum different in some way, to give it a new position or direction.
NEED FOR CURRICULUM CHANGE
- To restructure the curriculum according to the needs of the learner’s society
- To eliminate unnecessary units, teaching methods, and contents
- To introduce the latest and update methods of teaching and content, new knowledge, and practices.
- To add or delete a number of clinical hours of instruction. There is too much emphasis on the subject matter.
- Educators need to change the curriculum from time to time because of the current trends and needs of society. This is appropriate since there is a constant change happening in every area of life in the community. And a little bit of change entails ability and knowledge of work a student has to face soon in his/her life.
- Another reason is the growing demand for workers abroad. The curriculum has to be aligned within the international standards so that the competency of Filipino workers is compatible with the given standards, and the quality of work would not be compromised.
- A third reason is the upgrade of knowledge and discovery of some areas of knowledge especially in the field of research, science, and technology. As time goes by, the facts that were discovered since might become obsolete.
It is Outdated
While it is generally the responsibility of the teacher to adapt the curriculum to the particular classroom (i.e., students) that are being taught, having an updated curriculum is paramount to success. It allows the teacher to use that curriculum without having to research to find supplemental, up-to-date information. That saves the teacher huge amounts of time, allowing him/her to spend more time focusing on preparation and teaching than on research.
Obviously, some subjects need less updating as far as information is concerned. Math concepts for middle school students probably aren’t going to change much at all. The concepts are the same and have been since the dawn of time. The process of using those concepts could change a bit. But the concepts themselves remain the same.
The Demand for Knowledge Changes
The biggest reason for a change in education based on demand for knowledge lies in the fact that the world around us is always changing. The past century has seen unprecedented changes that have caused even more change at the classroom level.
For example, we now think globally instead of locally. That shifts the way we process information because we know so much more about other cultures and countries than in times past. In the past, people read about other countries and cultures. Now we see them firsthand on tv, the internet, books, magazines, and social media at the very least. We are so immersed in other cultures globally that it automatically affects how we receive an education.
Keeping Kids Engaged
Another reason why the curriculum needs to change is that teachers have a lot of competition for their students’ attention these days.
The opportunities that kids have been amazing. But the way that it is delivered to them is also very distracting. Constantly moving pictures on tv, computers, and games make kids want to see constant movement in other areas of life. That is a dynamic that teachers will have a hard time keeping up with.
The curriculum needs to change because technological advances that have occurred outside of the classroom have a huge impact on what happens inside the classroom.
The way we all do things now compared to even a decade ago is so drastically different. We generally don’t realize how much technology impacts almost every area of our lives.
Our World (and Worldview) Changes
Life changes just a bit every single day. In fact, life changes at the moment. We tend to not notice that so much. But we do notice the huge events that shape our lives. Everybody knows about the World Trade Center tragedy, when JFK was assassinated, the moon landing, and other huge events that happened. But very few people know what day the internet was invented, how computers were being used in the mid-20th century, or about specific medical advances that have been happening for decades (unless there are specific family members going through related issues maybe).
Some examples of how it affects our students and classroom are the vocabulary that we use, terminology of subjects, processes, and routines. In fact, the routines themselves change over time based on what is going on in the world around us.
Being flexible is key, as well as using change in the classroom as an educational opportunity. Kids love open communication. Thus they don’t feel left out of the loop, and they aren’t worried about what is coming next. Also, it is great preparation for the life they will live outside of the classroom, now and later.
Q.no.3: How does the cultural context influence curriculum planning and development?
The curriculum is regarded as the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes presented to the learners in order to change their behaviors to become functional members of their society. A well-planned curriculum must reflect the culture of the people for which it is planned for it to be a functional curriculum. Every curriculum is based on and covers the cultural universal, cultural specialties, and cultural alternatives. These are reflected in the school curricular.
These three aspects of culture are taken cognizance of in curriculum planning and implementation to ensure that the curriculum is functional. A functional curriculum reflects the culture of the people. The essence of education is to produce the total man; someone who can use what he/she has learned in school to solve problems. Culture is maintained and modified through education and so must be integrated into curriculum planning.
Culturally, we consider religion, norms, and traditions. One should know to which culture is the curriculum to for example in Moslem schools one cannot take a pig during an art examination as something to draw. A lot of things to consider culturally because our cultures determine our destiny like so should emphasize more of it.
Consequently, cultural understanding and reflection is an important condition for success. As curriculum development is often part of reform initiatives, accounting for culture in such curriculum development processes is necessary. Berkvens (2009) mentioned that educational development agendas are highly influenced by Western beliefs and expectations and that international aid organizations do not take the time to understand cultural dispositions and to develop contextual understanding. As a result, concepts are introduced with the best intentions, but in an inconsiderate and uncoordinated way, leading to poorly implemented and superficially understood concepts. This confirms the need for the environmental scanning function introduced by Kealey et al. (2005). Leyendecker (2008) discussed the interrelation between the larger socio-cultural and political context and the beliefs, values, and relationships of people influencing curriculum reform and implementation. Referring to reform initiatives in Namibian and South African schools, one of the main reasons for the maintenance of the status quo in these schools was believed to be a misfit between the curriculum development ambitions stimulated by international cooperation and the local educational practices within the cultural context (Chisholm & Leyendecker, 2008). Hence, the environmental scanning function can be extended to a curriculum and classroom level in which societal culture is taken into account.
Society and culture are the basic elements of curriculum development. The curriculum is meant for society and to promote culture and civilization. So they have an important role to play and no curriculum without keeping these in the right place is good at all.
The financial stability of the culture could contribute to the lack of educational development of its students. A country or culture without the backing of money to buy proper up-to-date material for those learning could hinder the educational development of its society as a whole. Since technology and science are evolving and growing at such an amazing rate keeping up with all of the new findings and discoveries and them implementing them into texts for education may be a very daunting task for those who preside over the educational curriculum of those cultures who seem to be struggling with such things as say running and or potable water or electricity. Those things become priorities rather than new up-to-date educational material.
Culture is maintained and modified through education. It is believed that wherever educational institutions discharge their responsibilities well, they influence the life of the society, which implies their culture. The curriculum must be a reflection of what people do, feel, and believe. All these have a cultural affiliation. It is said that culture is to education what current is to electricity. Any society whose education is not founded on its culture is in danger of alienating the products of that system from their culture. The curriculum planners must be familiar with the culture of the society for which the curriculum is being planned.
In short, countries, where the hierarchies tend to be steep, will often assume teaching activities to be based on the old-fashioned “teacher presents to class” model, with little to no interaction with the students.
This is also visible in a certain preference for associative versus abstractive learning styles.
In China and India for example, there was more of a tendency to build in quizzes and tests designed to regurgitate data, whereas in places like Sweden, France, or New Zealand, the curriculum much more often resorted to workshops and seminars where students were engaging in open-ended activities without prescribed outcomes, and the lecturers were there to inspire rather than to judge.
So, to boil it down to something, I’d say culture may influence your curriculum greatly regarding learning style, activity types, and role of the facilitating academic.
AIOU Curriculum Planning and Evaluation-II 6564 Solved Old Papers 2021