AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

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AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

Background

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level Name of the School (Govt High School Kamoke)

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(Overall background of the participants of the project; area/school: (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)

GHS KAMOKE:

GHS KAMOKE is located in Kamoke, tehsil Kamoke, and district Gujranwala. There are more than 20 teachers and 1000 students enrolled in the school. The school building is looking very good. There are more than 20 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities are available for the students.

This action research project titled “ROLE OF MODEL IN IMPROVING CRITICAL THINKING AT SECONDARY LEVEL.” At GHS KAMOKE.

Demographic details of participants: For the present research 100 participants are selected from the school, their ages are between 14-16 years. I selected students from grades 9th and 10th from sections A. Among 100 students, there are all are boys thus they make a total of 100 students as a sample for the present research.

The socio-economic condition of participants: The socioeconomic status is not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic condition has average. Such families have not enough means to manage the expenses of their children’s studies. The participants belong to middle-class families. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.

Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a public school “Govt High School” which is situated in the district Gujranwala.

The school has great discipline and is very organized in the teaching curriculum of the Gujranwala board. The school also achieves a great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.

Occupation / Profession and earning trends:

That’s was the rural area most people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people well-educated jobs and remaining were laborers. I got the occupation information from the index of the school register.

Literacy Rate:

I notice that the literacy rate of the city it was not so bad. Literacy rate 25 percent. It was good. Parents’ meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the located. Almost 25% of parents were well educated and other parents were uneducated.

Special Traits of Community:

The community where the school was situated have not strong financial conditions mostly people were laborers. They have to do strict efforts to fulfill the school expenses of their children. Students participate in games and then go to a high level. The private school was present in this village. People respect the teachers.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

Theme:

Developing basic Skills among Students

Sub-theme:

(Critical thinking skill)

Topic:

ROLE OF MODEL IN IMPROVING CRITICAL THINKING AT SECONDARY LEVEL.

1.Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.

(Give the background and rationale of the study)

The reason behind the selection of the topic: This action research was designed to investigate the role of MODEL in improving critical thinking at the secondary level. Although, well-managed school provides an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish through MODEL”. “Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students critical thinking through MODEL displaying”. “Classroom management strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students in building good discipline that lead to good behavior and critical thinking”. “The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for the learning of critical thinking”.  “Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply MODEL strategies that will allow and also help students to improve critical thinking.”.

The following reasons behind poor critical thinking of students which was observed in the school. This research identifies the solution to these.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

1.Poor Seating Arrangements and undisciplined:

Poor seating arrangements, extreme temperatures, or a high noise level are all distracting elements in a classroom that ultimately hinder the learning experience and critical thinking. The atmosphere in classrooms like these result in critical issues.

 2.Poor Mental Health:

Poor mental health is also associated with rapid social change, stressful work conditions, gender discrimination, social exclusion, unhealthy lifestyle, physical ill-health and human rights violations. There are specific psychological and personality factors that lead to critical thinking problems.

5.Poor Home Environment:

Home environment. It is usually a place in which an individual or a family can rest and be able to store personal property. But if the home environment not good like parents quarrels with on another all the time then this thing has the most negative impact on the critical thinking of students.

6.Lack of Interest in School Activities:

Lack of interest can be caused by difficultly concentrating, family problems, emotional difficulties, learning disabilities, and many other factors. Having said that, as a teacher, you still have to do your best and try to get them to develop critical thinking in students.

I have selected the above topic because now a day it is a common problem of all. Students don’t focus on critical thinking during the period. Students do not focus in class on the basis of the following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution to this problem.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

2.What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem.

(Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for a better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions).

When I discuss the whole matter and problem of MODEL that enhances critical thinking in students to my other colleagues and senior teachers it was argued that critical thinking should be a major area of concern for teachers and students. This is the concern of this chapter which tends to summarize what is essential to be known about the MODEL building process as it relates to critical thinking. Almost all the teachers and colleagues were in favor of the statement that the students having good critical thinking are possessing good behavior and personality. Because critical thinking and personality are very alternative. No, any students can get fluency in one skill without other skills. The researcher conducted this study which focused on the development of critical thinking that leads to good behavior and personality of students.

Critical thinking skills are essential skills for life, work, and function effectively in all other aspects of life. The role of teachers is now more complex than ever before, for example, how teachers respond to the diverse needs of students are constantly changing as a result of such rapid technological developments and the demands of the community to achieve excellence, as well as changes in the social construction of society and globalization [1]. The quality of the students in the future is determined by the role of teachers in today’s schools. Until now the school is a social institution that is organized to develop the students prepare for the future generations of this nation. Therefore schools and teachers are expected to develop and renew themselves continuously to be able to keep pace with the changes in the needs of students and society.

A teacher’s most important activity in a typical class environment that teaches to students with the help of MODEL. When you display the model according to the topic then students show a hundred percent more attention than normal teaching without MODEL. This thing leads to build critical thinking in students. Teaching through MODEL ultimately enhances critical thinking like problem-solving skills, decision-making skills. Punishment put a negative impact on some students like punished the students. Learning and teaching cannot take place in a mismanaged classroom that creates laziness in students. In limited terms, classroom management is the management of the class by educational motives. Contemporary understanding of the classroom management approach calls for conceiving class as a system. Class in the educational system is a subsystem of educational management and at the same time a formal organization. Within this framework, classroom management could be defined as the process of arranging the classroom environment and its physical structure under the laws in order to satisfy the expectations of the educational system, the curriculum, the school, the lesson, the teacher, and the students, constituting the rules, relation patterns and administration of class order; planning, presenting and evaluating educational activities, recognizing students’ assets; providing student motivation; arranging classroom communication pattern; attaining classroom discipline,  effective and productive employment of time, human and material resources in order to prevent students’ undesired behavior.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

Critical thinking is the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment. The skills that we need in order to be able to think critically are varied and include observation, analysis, interpretation, reflection, evaluation, inference, explanation, problem-solving, and decision making. Specifically, we need to be able to: Think about a topic or issue in an objective and critical way. Analytical thinking, Good communication, Creative thinking, Open-mindedness, Ability to solve problems, asking thoughtful questions, promoting a teamwork approach to problem-solving, Self-evaluating your contributions to company goals.

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of MODEL in the development of student’s critical thinking of High school students.

3.What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?

(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem).

Critical thinking skills are essential skills for life, work, and function effectively in all other aspects of life. The role of teachers is now more complex than ever; A teacher is an agent of change; Associated with the development of critical thinking, the practice of teaching and learning by teachers in primary schools encourage the achievement of the necessary critical thinking skills. One factor is the lack of understanding of the teachers’ teaching methods that can improve critical thinking skills. Therefore, need to empower teachers. One model is the ‘Training and Development Personnel’ Model. The purpose of this study was to test the efficiency and effectiveness of the training model and find the determinant factors of teachers’ development of critical thinking.

In February 1985, the Association of American Colleges issued Integrity in the College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community, The report proposes as part of a minimum program that all students learn “to reason well, to recognize when reason and evidence are not enough, to discover the legitimacy of intuition, to subject data to the probing analysis of the mind” (Association of American Colleges, 1985, p. 15). Further emphasis is placed on inquiry skills, abstract logical thinking, and critical analysis.

In addition to these two reports, there are other indications suggesting that increased emphasis will be put on critical thinking. In California, a graduation requirement in critical thinking has been established at the nineteen campuses of the state university system. Within the last year, three issues of Education Leadership and one issue of the National Forum have been devoted to thinking skills, and several major associations have developed workshops and networks of individuals to share ideas about this subject.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

One of the primary means used to enhance critical thinking in classroom instruction. It has been assumed that if teachers use appropriate instructional methods and curriculum materials, students will improve their critical thinking skills (Young, 1980). Indeed, this view was formalized more than thirty years ago by Dressel and Mayhew (1954), who identified five critical thinking skills and conducted research to show how a college curriculum and teaching strategies could be developed to enhance critical thinking. Yet in the seminal volume, The Impact of College on Students, Feldman and Newcomb (1969) did not summarize any studies that investigated the effect of curriculum or teaching strategies on critical thinking. The term “critical thinking” does not even appear in the index of this book.

Despite both the long-standing and more recent interest in developing college students’ critical thinking ability, few published studies document the development of critical thinking or demonstrate how to improve it with specific curriculum materials or instructional methods (Terenzini, Theophilides, and Lorang, 1984). Moreover, what has been published discusses critical thinking along with other forms of higher-level thinking (Pascarella, 1985). Based on a comprehensive review of research on college teaching from 1924 to 1970, McKeachie (1970) concludes that “in general, large classes are simply not as effective as small classes for critical thinking” (p. 2). That this conclusion appears to be based on three studies in marketing and economics, only one of which demonstrated statistically significant differences is indicative of the paucity of studies on critical thinking.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

McKeachie also cites seven studies to show that discussion classes are more effective than lecture classes in promoting “higher level retention and thinking,” along with three other studies indicating a similar, though the nonsignificant difference in outcomes for the two modes of instruction, and he finds some indication that student-centered classes, rather than instructor-centered classes, promote higher-level cognitive outcomes. For the most part, other variables, such as the use of printed materials, programmed learning, independent study, simulation, and student characteristics, were found to be unrelated to critical or higher-level thinking outcomes. In his conclusion, McKeachie suggests that “we need to go well beyond the simplest measures of knowledge  I hope this review demonstrates the value of measures of critical thinking ” (p. 12). In a later review by Kulick and McKeachie (1975), essentially the same conclusions are reached.

The purpose of this review is to analyze research that has investigated programs designed to change college students’ ability to think critically. This article will provide a summary of the findings from these studies and analyze their methodology, examine curriculum materials and teaching strategies that may be related to improvements in critical thinking, and explore implications of these studies for needed research and documentation of changes in the critical thinking ability of college students. This author conducted an exhaustive search of literature from 1950 through 1985, using Dissertation Abstracts, Current Index of Journals in Education, and Research in Education, and books. The studies included used the term “critical thinking” to describe the dependent variable. Studies investigating related concepts, such as problem-solving, reasoning, and formal operational thought, are not included in this review, although results from research in these areas are discussed in interpreting the findings here. The studies discussed here are divided into three categories: The first category includes studies of specific instructional variables; the second examines how entire courses may affect critical thinking; and the third contains studies that investigate the impact of general programs, studying the combined effect of many courses.

4.What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/description from literature?

(what are the key terms in your topic or study? What do you mean by these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project).

Variables of the study:

Total two variables included in this research. One is the independent variable and the second are dependent variables. Role of Model is an independent variable and student’s critical thinking used as the dependent variable. Critical thinking includes Analytical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving skills, decision-making skills.

MODEL:

A standard or example for imitation or comparison. a representation, generally in miniature, to show the construction or appearance of something. an image in clay, wax, or the like, to be reproduced in more durable material. a person or thing that serves as a subject for an artist, sculptor, writer, etc. This can be simple like a diagram, physical model, or picture, or complex like a set of calculus equations, or computer program. The main types of scientific models are visual, mathematical, and computer models.

Critical Thinking:

The skills that we need in order to be able to think critically are varied and include observation, analysis, interpretation, reflection, evaluation, inference, explanation, problem-solving, and decision making. Specifically, we need to be able to: Think about a topic or issue in an objective and critical way. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Critical thinking helps people better understand themselves, their motivations, and goals. When you can deduce information to find the most important parts and apply those to your life, you can change your situation and promote personal growth and overall happiness.

Analytical Thinking:

Analytical thinking is a critical component of visual thinking that gives one the ability to solve problems quickly and effectively. It involves a methodical step-by-step approach to thinking that allows you to break down complex problems into single and manageable components.

Creative Thinking:

Creative thinking is: A way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh perspective that suggests unorthodox solutions (which may look unsettling at first). Creative thinking can be stimulated both by an unstructured process such as brainstorming and by a structured process such as lateral thinking.

Problem-solving skills :
Solving problems means making choices. Typically, effective problem-solving skills result in “happier, more confident, and more independent” individuals. When children tackle problems on their own, or in a group, they become resilient.

Decision-making skills:

Decision-making is the key skill in the workplace and very important for leaders.  Decision-making is a critical skill for effective management and leadership. Some people are just not suited to leadership roles because of their lack of ability to make decisions.

5.what did you want to achieve in this research project?

(Objective/ purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project).

  • Research Objectives

The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of MODEL in improving of student’s critical thinking. So, the study will focus on the causes of problems of students regarding this.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:

Objectives of the Study

Following was the main objective of the study.

  1. To explore the relationship between MODEL presentation in the class and critical thinking at the secondary level.
  2. To explore the relationship between MODEL presentation in the class and creative thinking at the secondary level.
  3. To find out the relationship between MODEL presentation in the class and problem-solving skills of students at the secondary level.
  4. To give suggestions for the improvement of the situation.

Research Questions of the study

RQ1: What are the relationship between MODEL presentation in the class and critical thinking at the secondary level?

RQ2: What are the relationship between MODEL presentation in the class and creative thinking at the secondary level.

RQ3: What is the relationship between MODEL presentation in the class and problem-solving skills of students at the secondary level.

RQ4. What are the suggestions for the improvement of the situation?

6.Who were the participants in your project?

(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g. the early grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class 8 who did not have good communication skills).

Population

The population of the study comprised boys studying at Govt high School Kamoke of Pakistan.

Sample

A total of “100” students were taken as a sample of the study. Gujranwala City was taken as a Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, the total sample size was 100 respondents including male students. This sample provides appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school.

7.How did you try to solve the problem?

(Narrate the process stepwise. The procedure of intervention and data collection)

Research Methodology

All research methods and techniques that will be used in this study are given below.

Research Method:

The research method may describe in three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method, and Mixed Method. In the study, the quantitative research method was used, because data were collected by using the questionnaire in the light of students’ and teachers’ perceptions.

Research Design:

It is descriptive and surveys research about the “Role of MODEL in improving critical thinking at the secondary level.”

Population:

A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of the public schools in Pakistan. The data was collected from student’s public schools by filling up the questionnaire.

Sampling Technique

A convenient sampling technique was used in this study.

 Sample

In research, a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 100 students were selected from government schools.

 Data collection procedure

Data was collected through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled by one student according to his point of view. In this way 100 questionnaires filled by 100 respondents. On the basis of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students, and provided solutions to sort out these problems. Open-ended and closed-ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed-ended questionnaires, 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2), and Strongly Disagree (DA=1).

Data Analysis

Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study, the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analysis of data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means and minimum/maximum values, etc.

 

8.What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

(For example observation, Questionnaire, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test etc.)

Instruments:

The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. The questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.

Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:

Questionnaire for students:

The following main questions guided the collection and analysis of data for the present study. All the information that contained in these question ultimately helpful for improving critical thinking of students.

  1. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop critical thinking at the secondary level.
  2. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop problem-solving skills at the secondary level.
  3. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop creative thinking at the secondary level.
  4. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop decision-making skills at the secondary level.
  5. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop interpersonal skills at the secondary level.
  6. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop self-discipline at the secondary level.
  7. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop learning skills at the secondary level.
  8. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop practicability at the secondary level.
  9. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop teamwork at the secondary level.
  10. Students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop healthy competition at the secondary level.

Instruments, participants, and procedures of quantitative data collection are presented in the following sections.

Data analysis

After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.

9.What were the findings and conclusion?

Findings:

  1. The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop critical thinking at the secondary level.
  2. The overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop problem-solving skills at the secondary level.
  3. The overall majority (95%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop creative thinking at the secondary level.
  4. The overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop decision-making skills at the secondary level.
  5. The overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop interpersonal skills at the secondary level.
  6. The overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop self-discipline at the secondary level.
  7. The overall majority (94%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop learning skills at the secondary level.
  8. The overall majority (93%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop practicability at the secondary level.
  9. The overall majority (94%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop teamwork at the secondary level.
  10. The overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that students’ MODEL presentation policies in the classroom develop healthy competition at the secondary level.

Conclusions

The researcher in this study, from the findings, concluded by analysis the following conclusion:

MODEL presentation is the most powerful tool of any of these. Adding a MODEL to increase a response not only works better but allows teachers to gain the attention of students for learning. Model presentation made the teaching easy for teachers, but problems may result when it is not applied consistently. Punishment can also invoke other negative emotional responses, such as anger and resentment.

Teacher-student relationships are crucial for the success of both teachers and students. As a feature of classroom administration, such connections are the most noteworthy factor in deciding an educator’s work as effective. The impact of the instructor’s conduct assumes a critical job in the scholastic accomplishment of understudies. An instructor needs to show outstanding sympathy, constancy, industriousness, truthfulness, examination introduction, trustworthiness, and adaptability as a man. Instructors likewise should be mindful in the manner by which anything that a living being does that includes activity and reaction to incitement.

Teaching is the activity of teachers for the purposes of education. Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which building students’ behavior.

That good classroom management strategies show that MODEL presentation develops discipline, critical thinking, student’s confidence policies, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence, and honesty in secondary school students According to the perceptions of secondary school students (an open-ended question), the majority of the respondents (secondary school students) agreed that students ‘MODEL presentation policies of the classroom have a stronger effect on developing critical thinking, punctuality, student’s confidence policies, leadership skill, teamwork, character development, and adaptability.

10.Summary of the Project

University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub-theme. My topic that I choose the role of MODEL in improving critical thinking at the secondary level. I choose this topic because I have to face problems with MODEL and critical thinking in school. It is difficult to create discipline in the students during the model presentation.

The sample comprised a total of 100 students drawn from the secondary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by a simple random sampling technique.

This study investigated the role of MODEL and critical thinking of students among secondary school students. It also investigated the effects of the school environment and management related differences on students’ academic performance in the concept of measurement when taught using a hygienic environment and Unhygienic environment in the class.

The instrument used for students for data collection. The research design was descriptive. The result was found that the Model presentation in the classroom improves critical thinking in the personality of students. Teacher’s behavior and teaching methods also impact students ‘critical thinking level.

11.How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?

The aim of this study was to improve the critical thinking of students.  My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students of Govt Secondary School karaoke situated in Gujranwala district. In rural areas, most people maintain discipline but not all.

A classroom positive reinforcement atmosphere is a very important element in the study through Model presentation because it helps in the learning of students. So I used a different technique for creating a positive reinforcement atmosphere in the class to maintain discipline that leads to critical thinking. Students were happy and learn quickly on the basis of the hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teachers create a positive atmosphere in the class then students have no problem with discipline and critical thinking. Students respond to the implementation of teaching if they teach in a hygienic atmosphere. I created a hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s critical thinking and personality during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.

12.What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added some new things to my knowledge key points are given below.

  • It made me a good organizer.
  • It made me ready for everything that is thrown their way.
  • It enabled me how to present a Model in the classroom to develop the critical thinking of students.
  • It built confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students for improving critical thinking.
  • Before these activities, I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
  • I started finding out new things before I have not inserted them. But when I started my project a great change brought in my thinking.
  • I am capable to find out new things.
  • It made me a good effective teacher and mentor.
  • It made me a good role model.
  • It made me confident. Teacher discipline can help influence other to be a better person.
  • It made me capable to understand how to create a classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to improve critical thinking and personality at the secondary level.
  • It tells me how a negative punishing atmosphere effect on student’s personality and critical thinking.

AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Model In Improving Critical Thinking At Secondary Level

Q.13 List the works you cited in your project.

REFERENCES

Association of American Colleges. (1985). Integrity in the College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community. Washington, D.C.

Abo El-Nasser, M. E. M. (1978). Conflicting concepts of critical thinking. (Doctoral dissertation, George Peabody College of Teachers). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 480 A.

Bailey, J. F. (1979). The effects of an instructional paradigm on the development of critical thinking of college students in an introductory botany course. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 3138A.

Beckman, V. E. (1956). An investigation of the contributions to critical thinking made by courses in argumentation and discussion in selected colleges. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Dissertation Abstracts International, 16, 2551A.

Beyer, B. (1985). Critical thinking: What is it? Social Education, 49(4): 270-276. Brabeck, M. M. (1983). Critical thinking skills and reflective judgment development: redefining the aims of higher education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 4(1): 23-24.

Broughton, J. (1977). Beyond formal operations: theoretical thought in adolescence. Teachers College Record 79(1): 87-97.

Carmichael, J. W., Hassell, J., Hunter, J., Jones, L., Ryan, M. A., and Vincent, H. (1980). Project SOAR (stress on analytical reasoning). The American Biology Teacher 42(3): 169-173.

Chipman, S. F., Segal, J. W., and Glaser, R., eds. (1985). Thinking and Learning Skills (Volume 2: Research and Open Questions). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Coscarelli, W. C, and Schwen, T. M. (1979). Effects of three algorithmic representations on critical thinking, laboratory efficiency, and final grade. Educational Communication & Technology 27(1): 58-64.

Dressel, P. L., and Mayhew, L. B. (1954). General Education: Explorations in Evaluation. Westport, T: Greenwood Press.

Elstein, A. S., Shulman, L. S., and Sprafka, S. A. (1978). Medical Problem Solving. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ennis, R. H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership 43(2): 44-48.

Feldman, K. A., and Newcomb, T. M. (1969). The Impact of College on Students (Vol. 1). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Fishbein, E. L. (1975). The effect of three patterns of small group assignment in promoting critical thinking, open-mindedness, and creativity in community college students. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Miami). Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 7946 A.

Glaser, R. (1984). Education and thinking: the role of knowledge. American Psychologist 39(2): 93-104.

Glaser, E. M. (1985). Critical thinking: educating for responsible citizenship in a democracy. National Forum 65(1): 24-27.

Gressler, L. A. (1976). The effect of research courses upon the attitudes and critical thinking abilities of graduate students. (Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 3994 A.

Hancock, B. W. (1981). The effect of guided design in the critical thinking ability of college-level administrative science students. (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 4275A.

Hardin, L. D. (1977). A study of the influence of a physics personalized system of instruction versus lecture on cognitive reasoning, attitudes, and critical thinking. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 4711 A.

Hayden, V. M. B. (1978). A study of the effects of traditional biology and selected biological science curriculum study (BSCS) minicourses on the attitudes, achievement levels, and critical thinking abilities of students at Alcorn State University. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 2167A.

Jackson, T. R. (1961). The effects of intercollegiate debating on critical thinking ability. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin). Dissertation Abstracts International, 21, 3556A.

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