AIOU Solved Thesis 8613 Role Of Religions Perspective On Education Activities In Pakistani’s Culture
Name of the School (Govt Model Primary School Mehlowala)
(Overall background of the participants of the project; area/school: (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)
GMPS Mehlowala is located in Mehlowala, tehsil Gujranwala and district Gujranwala. There are 8 teachers and 300 students enrolled in the school. The school building is looking very good. There are more than 7 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities are available for the students.
This action research project titled “ROLE OF RELIGIONS PERSPECTIVE ON EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN PAKISTANI’s CULTURE.” At GMPS Mehlowala.
Demographic details of participants: For the present research 40 participants are selected from the school, their ages are between 12-15 years. I selected students from grades 3rd to 5th from sections A. Among 40 students, there are 20 girls and 20 boys thus they make a total of 40 students as a sample for the present research.
The socio-economic condition of participants: The socioeconomic status is not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions are good. Such families have not enough means to manage the expenses of their children’s studies. The participants belong to middle-class families. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.
Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a public school “Govt Model Primary School” which is situated in the district Gujranwala.
The school has great discipline and is very organized in the teaching curriculum of the Gujranwala board. The school also achieves a great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.
Occupation / Profession and earning trends:
That’s was the rural area most people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people well-educated jobs and remaining were laborers. I got the occupation information from the index of the school register.
I notice that the literacy rate of the city it was not so bad. Literacy rate 25 percent. It was good. Parents’ meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the located. Almost 25% of parents were well educated and other parents were uneducated.
Special Traits of Community:
The community where the school was situated have not strong financial conditions mostly people were laborers. They have to do strict efforts to fulfill the school expenses of their children. Students participate in games and then go to a high level. The private school was present in this village. People respect the teachers.
Developing basic Skills among Students
ROLE OF RELIGIONS PERSPECTIVE ON EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN PAKISTANI’s CULTURE.
1.Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
(Give the background and rationale of the study)
The reason behind the selection of the topic: This action research was designed to investigate the role of a religious perspective on education activities in Pakistani culture. Although, well-managed school provides an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish”. “Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students ‘behavior regarding religions perspective”. “Classroom management strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students in building religious activities that lead to religious Pakistani culture”. “The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for the learning of religion”. “Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to improve behavior regarding religious activities.”.
The following reasons behind poor behavior of students regarding religious activities which was observed in the school. This research identifies the solution of these.
1.Focus just on Book Study:
In school teachers just focus on a book study of students. They just taught the lesson to students and say them for learning. Students just focus just on the rata system for learning. Teachers don’t focus on religious activities to boost up the confidence of students.
2.Poor Mental Health:
Poor mental health is also associated with poor religious activities, stressful work conditions, gender discrimination, social exclusion, unhealthy lifestyle, physical ill-health, and human rights violations. There are specific psychological and personality factors that make people vulnerable to mental health problems that lead to problems in religious activities.
Irresponsible is not capable of handling assignments or taking responsibility for religious activities. Most teachers took responsibility for just lecture delivery. An example of an irresponsible person is someone who constantly forgets to do her assignments.
4.Poor Home Environment:
A home environment is usually a place in which an individual or a family can rest and be able to store personal property from a religious perspective. But if the home environment not good like parents quarrels with one another all the time then this thing has the most negative impact on the mind of students.
5.Lack of Interest in School Activities:
Lack of interest can be caused by difficultly concentrating, family problems, emotional difficulties, learning disabilities, and many other factors. Having said that, as a teacher, you still have to do your best and try to get them to learn at least the basics of any subject.
I have selected the above topic because now a day it is a common problem of all. Students don’t focus on religious activities during the period. Students do not focus in class on religious activities on the basis of the following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution to this problem.
2.What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem.
(Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for a better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions).
When I discuss the whole matter and problem of the role of religions’ perspective on education activities in Pakistani culture to my other colleagues and senior teachers it was argued that. So, good behavior and personality should be a major area of concern to teachers and students. This is the concern of this chapter which tends to summarize what is essential to be known about the reinforcement building process as it relates to good behavior and personality. Almost all the teachers and colleagues were in favor of the statement that the students having good discipline are possessing good behavior and personality. Because discipline and personality are very alternative. No, any students can get fluency in one skill without another skill. The researcher conducted this study which focused on the Development of discipline that leads to good behavior and personality of students.
A teacher’s most important activity in a typical class environment is the one related to classroom management that leading to build good behavior in students. Positive Reinforcement ultimately enhances good behavior and personality like praise, reward offering. But punishment cannot apply to all students. Punishment put a negative impact on some students like punished the students. Learning and teaching cannot take place in a mismanaged classroom. In limited terms, classroom management is the management of the class by educational motives. Contemporary understanding of the classroom management approach calls for conceiving class as a system. Class in the educational system is a subsystem of educational management and at the same time a formal organization. Within this framework, classroom management could be defined as the process of arranging the classroom environment and its physical structure under the laws in order to satisfy the expectations of the educational system, the curriculum, the school, the lesson, the teacher, and the students, constituting the rules, relation patterns and administration of class order; planning, presenting and evaluating educational activities, recognizing students’ assets; providing student motivation; arranging classroom communication pattern; attaining classroom discipline, effective and productive employment of time, human and material resources in order to prevent students’ undesired behavior.
Behavior is a response, which an individual shows to his environment at different times. Behavior can be positive or negative, effective or ineffective, conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Behavior can be regarded as any action of an organism that changes its relationship to its environment. Behavior provides outputs from the organism to the environment. The meaning of behavior is to conduct or carry oneself or behavior in what we do, especially in response to outside stimuli anything that an organism does that involves action and response to stimulation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of reinforcement in the development of student’s behavior of Primary school students.
3.What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem).
Religious texts and teachings of Islam propound a particular philosophy of education and educational leaders, which provides a basis for similarities of concepts and practices within the overarching umbrella of Muslim Ummah,2 and also underpins the perceptions and responses of Muslims in predominantly non-Muslim contexts. In spite of variations across the range of Muslim societies, sacred religious texts remain the sources of legitimation, contributing to a philosophical likeness. Any variations within and across these societies are formulated at various intersections influenced by multiple factors. However, developments perceived as deviations from Islamic teachings often entail intense political and intellectual engagement to avoid ‘legitimation crisis’ (Habermas, 1976; Giddens, 1990) that could cause complications at the implementation stage, as has been the case in Pakistan over recent years, in the efforts towards curriculum development (Nayyar & Salim, 2002) and improving the system of examinations (Ali, 2005; Hussain, 2005).
The notion of educational leadership in Islam derives from the Islamic philosophy of education, and contextual variations of conceptualization and practice across Muslim societies involve interpretations informed by an understanding of religious texts, which reinforces the interplay between faith and concepts. Muslim scholars often argue that the social, educational, and related notions and concepts in Muslim societies ‘cannot be truly appreciated without some accurate understanding of the Islamic faith and civilization’ (Tabawi, 1972, p. 19).
The basis of the Islamic philosophy of education is located in faith as reflected in the Quranic caveat that God is the ultimate knower (2.32): … and above every one possessed of knowledge is the All-knowing One. (The Quran 12.76) The claim is that all knowledge rests with God, and human beings are the best of creation because they partake of this godly quality: God has bestowed on [human beings], and [human beings] alone among all the created things, ability to recognize, understand, and emulate the attributes of God, and realize them in practice in this life. (Hussain & Ashraf, 1979, p. 10).
The ontological debates and epistemic questions regarding the philosophy of knowledge in Islam and the nature of human knowledge are beyond the scope of this article.3 The focus here is on the concept of educational leadership from an Islamic perspective, and the debates contributing to the development of this concept in Muslim societies. Nevertheless, some understanding of the nature of knowledge and the importance of the acquisition of knowledge from a Muslim perspective may be useful to understand why leadership, especially educational leadership, is construed in particular ways by Muslims.
Islam, with its claims to universality and comprehensibility, seeks to encompass every aspect of human endeavor. The aim of Islamic education is to develop humans through knowledge to enable them to follow the path of righteousness, and to become useful members of the Ummah and society. This underpins the faith dimension of ‘education for all’4 in Islam where learning becomes a religious obligation, ‘compulsory on every Muslim male and female’ (Karim, 1938, p. 351), spanning the whole life5 (Tibawi, 1972; Al-Attas, 1979; Maududi, 1980; Nasr, 1985; Ashraf, 1995). The role of Islamic education is perceived as giving meaning to life and enriching it, instilling discipline and preserving human values, and strengthening and advancing human societies. These perceptions contribute to enhanced expectations of Muslim learners and communities from educational institutions and leaders.
The Islamic theory of education derives from the Quranic concepts (Abdullah, 1982, p. 43). The nature of knowledge (revealed and acquired) and its contribution towards an individual’s holistic development are some such elements that shape the approach and determine the role of knowledge and the knowledge-givers. The stress on seeking and acquiring knowledge is one of the basic tenets of Islam (Al-Bukhari, vol. 1), emphasizing that only those who have knowledge ‘tread the path of righteousness (taqwa)’ (the Quran 35:28), and it is linked to elevated status:
O mankind, We have created you from male and female, and We have divided you into tribes and sub-tribes so that you could know each other. Verily the most honored (akramakum) of you in the sight of God is the most righteous (atqakum) of you. (The Quran 49:13).
Righteousness is attained through knowledge and by the application of that knowledge to every aspect of life. The aim of education in Islam is to prepare human beings for leading a life of ‘righteousness’ in a social context which underpins relevant conceptualizations on educational sites.
In Islam, education is for the holistic development, and religion is not a mere set of moral principals, but a complete system encompassing and integrating the political, social, and economic, as well as personal, moral, and spiritual aspects of life (Dabashi, 1993, p. 439; also Maududi, 1980; Nasr, 1985). Learning and knowledge are not a matter of individual choice or priority, determined by personal needs or market forces. It is a duty imposed by God and defined as the path to ‘righteousness’ (Tibawi, 1972; Al-Attas, 1979; Ashraf, 1995). Seeking knowledge is jihad,6 an effort in the way of God7 (Al-Bukhari, vol. 1), aiming at the development of the individual as a whole being so that s/he acts for the sake of God:
If any do deeds of righteousness, be they male or female, and have faith, they will enter paradise. (The Quran 4:124)
Proceeding from this thesis, ‘self is the site where knowledge articulates, and educational leaders are perceived as playing a significant role in this process. The Quranic view of self is dynamic, with an infinite capacity for development: Verily We will raise you to higher and higher levels. (The Quran 84:19)
And self is not a passive recipient of ‘higher levels’. In fact, it is an active participant in actualizing its potentialities, possessing an agency in creating and developing its subjectivity:
The self (nafs) owns only that which it earns and it changes through what it assimilates, good or bad. (The Quran 74:38).
The role of educational leadership, by virtue of being involved in knowledge building, and because of the status of knowledge in Islam (the Quran 2:70), is a major contributing factor to this ‘process of becoming’ (Choudhury, 1993, p. 6).
Furthermore, seeking knowledge has a collective dimension-to share that knowledge with others. Teaching/learning pertains to the realm of haqook-al-abaad (obligations of human beings to one another), and teaching is the duty of the prophets,8 who are perceived as Muslims (knowledge-givers). The emphasis on the importance of teaching/learning underpins the high status of teachers and educational leaders. As the aim of education embraces the development of the Ummah and the society, this extends the role of educational leaders and teachers beyond the institutions. The emphasis on the social and collective in Islam is evident in the pronouncement that ‘God will forgive the sins of faith but not those committed against other human beings’ (Al-Bukhari, vol. 1).
The Islamic philosophy of education draws from the belief that God, the ultimate knower, ‘taught to man the knowledge of things’ (the Quran 96:1-5). The discourse of God as a teacher raises teaching/knowledge-giving to the level of the highest-status activity and establishes the link between knowledge, knowledge sharing, and leadership. Adam, the first human being in Islamic theology, was made vicegerent on earth because God had ‘taught Adam the nature of things’ (the Quran: 2:31). To this Adam, the angels were asked to perform ‘sijda’9 (the Quran 2:34). The ensuing argument between God and the Archangel as to the cause of Adam’s superiority (the Quran 2:30-33) underpins the high status of knowledge in Islam, and its association with leadership. The question is forcefully and clearly raised in the Quran:
Are those who possess the knowledge and those who do not on equal footing?’0 (The Quran: 39:9).
The relevant points that emerge here are that in Islamic philosophy of knowledge, ultimate knowledge lies with God, and human knowledge is limited and fragmentary; secondly, knowledge and giving knowledge are godly attributes; and thirdly, knowledge and sharing knowledge (teaching/learning) are the sources and justification of status and leadership. This perspective contributes to the blurring of boundaries between teacher and leader and underpins theoretical constructions of educational leadership in Muslim societies. The Quran repeatedly emphasizes that none can grasp the meaning of revelations except men of understanding and those firmly grounded in knowledge (the Quran: 3:7-8; 6:105; 22:55; 24:6), thus suggesting that only those who possess knowledge and understanding are capable of guiding and leading people, the tasks obligatory for the prophets. The promise made in a later verse that ‘God will raise in ranks those of you who believe as well as those who are given knowledge’ (the Quran 58:11) is another example of the relationship between knowledge and status. The prophets, otherwise ordinary human beings, have elevated status among mankind because of their knowledge:”
And certainly, We gave knowledge to Dawood and Sulaiman, and they both said: Praise be to Allah, who has made us excel many of His believing servants. (The Quran 27:15).
4.What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/description from literature?
(what are the key terms in your topic or study? What do you mean by these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project).
Variables of the study:
Total two variables included in this research. One is the independent variable and the second are dependent variables. Religions perspective is an independent variable and students Behavior regarding education activities used as the dependent variable.
There are three perspectives in identifying religious change: giving priority to individuals, to social systems, and to religion itself. Every perspective has some outcomes for understanding the place of religion in social and individual life. Functionalists view religion in a positive way; they see religion to play the function of maintaining harmony and social cohesion. Functionalism is a value consensus theory and so functionalists see religion as a positive apparatus in a society that promotes social solidarity and allows society to run smoothly.
Students Behavior regarding education activities:
When students perform a religious activity like Tilawat, Naat, Quiz Competition about religious perspective this thing creates confidence in the personality of students. They feel confident about their religion. Religious activities conducted at the school level, Markaz level, Tehsil level, and then District legal. Students participate in these activities to promote Pakistani culture.
5.what did you want to achieve in this research project?
(Objective/ purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project).
- Research Objectives
The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of religion’s perspective on education activities in Pakistani culture. So, the study will focus on the causes of problems of students regarding this.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:
Objectives of the Study
Following was the main objective of the study.
- To explore the relationship between religious perspective and education activities in Pakistani culture at the primary level.
- To explore the relationship between religious perspective and behavior development at the Primary level.
- To give suggestions for the improvement of the situation.
Research Questions of the study
- What is the relationship between religious perspective and education activities in Pakistani culture at the primary level.?
- What is the relationship between religious perspective and behavior development at the primary level?
RQ 3. What are the suggestions for the improvement of the situation?
6.Who were the participants in your project?
(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g. the early grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class 8 who did not have good communication skills).
The population of the study comprised boys and girls studying at Govt Modal Primary School Mehlowala of Pakistan.
A total of “40” students were taken as a sample of the study. Gujranwala City was taken as a Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, the total sample size was 40 respondents including male and female students. This sample provides appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school.
7.How did you try to solve the problem?
(Narrate the process stepwise. The procedure of intervention and data collection)
All research methods and techniques that will be used in this study are given below.
The research method may describe in three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method, and Mixed Method. In the study, the quantitative research method was used, because data was collected by using a questionnaire in the light of students’ and teachers’ perceptions.
It is descriptive and surveys research about “Role of Religions Perspective On Education Activities in Pakistani’s Culture”.
A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of the public schools in Pakistan. The data was collected from student’s public schools by filling up the questionnaire.
A convenient sampling technique was used in this study.
In research, a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 40 students were selected from government schools.
Data collection procedure
Data was collected through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled by one student according to his point of view. In this way 40 questionnaires filled by 40 respondents. On the basis of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students, and provided solutions to sort out these problems. Open-ended and closed-ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed-ended questionnaires, 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2), and Strongly Disagree (DA=1).
Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study, the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analysis of data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means and minimum/maximum values, etc.
8.What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
(For example observation, Questionnaire, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test, etc.)
The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. The questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.
Questionnaire for students:
The following main questions guided the collection and analysis of data for the present study. All the information that contained in these question ultimately helpful for developing the good behavior of students.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops good behavior at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops confidence at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities collaborative skills at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops adaptability at the Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops interpersonal skills at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops self-discipline at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops learning skills at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops the ability to perform in front of the audience at the Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops healthy competition at Primary level.
- Role of religion perspective on education activities develops understanding and respect for others at the Primary level.
Instruments, participants, and procedures of quantitative data collection are presented in the following sections.
After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.
9.What were the findings and conclusion?
1.Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that the Role of a religious perspective on education activities develop good behavior at the Primary level.
- The overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that the Role of a religious perspective on education activities develops confidence at the Primary level.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that the Role of religion perspective on education activities collaborative skills at the Primary level.
- Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that the Role of religion perspective on education activities develops adaptability at the Primary level.
- The overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that the Role of a religious perspective on education activities develops interpersonal skills at Primary level.
- Overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that Role of religion perspective on education activities develop self-discipline at Primary level.
- Overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that Role of religion perspective on education activities develop learning skills at Primary level.
- Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Role of religion perspective on education activities develop ability to perform in front of the audience at Primary level.
- Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Role of religion perspective on education activities develop heathy competition at Primary level.
- Overall majority (94%) of the respondents agreed that Role of religion perspective on education activities develop understanding and respect for others at Primary level.
The researcher in this study, from the findings concluded by analysis the following conclusion:
Religions perspective is the most powerful tool of any of these. Adding a positive to increase a response not only works better but allows both parties to focus on the positive aspects of the situation.
Teacher-student relationships are crucial for the success of both teachers and students. As a feature of classroom administration about religion perspective, such connections are the most noteworthy factor in deciding an educator’s work as effective. The impact of instructor’s conduct assumes a critical job in the scholastic accomplishment of understudies. An instructor needs to show outstanding sympathy, constancy, industriousness, truthfulness, examine introduction, trustworthiness, and adaptability as a man. Instructors likewise should be mindful in the manner by which anything that a living being does that includes activity and reaction to incitement.
Teaching is the activity of teachers for the purposes of education. Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which building students’ behavior regarding religious perspective.
That good classroom management strategies show that positive reinforcement develop discipline, critical thinking, student’s confidence policies, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence, and honesty in Primary school students According to the perceptions of Primary school students (an open-ended question), the majority of the respondents (Primary school students) agreed that students ‘reinforcement policies of classroom have a stronger effect on developing self-confidence, punctuality, student’s confidence policies, leadership skill, teamwork, character development, and adaptability.
10.Summary of the Project
University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub-theme. My topic that I choose ROLE OF RELIGIONS PESPECTIVE ON EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN PAKISTANI’s CULTURE. I choose this topic because I have to face problems about religious perspective and behavior in school.
The sample comprised a total of 40 students drawn from the Primary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.
This study investigated the role of a religious perspective on education activities in Pakistani culture among Primary school students. It also investigated the effects of school environment and management related differences on students’ religious activities in the concept of measurement when taught using hygienic environment and Unhygienic environment in the class.
Instrument used for students for data collection. Research design was descriptive. The result was found that the religion perspective on educating activities develops good behavior and personality in students. Teachers behavior and teaching method also impact students ‘behavior.
11.How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?
The aim of this study was to improve the behavior and personality of students through a religious perspective. My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students of Govt Primary School Mehlowala situated in Gujranwala district. In rural areas, most people maintain discipline but not all.
Classroom positive reinforcement atmosphere is very important element in education activities because it helps in the learning of students. So I used different technique for creating a positive atmosphere in the class to maintain discipline that lead good behavior and personality. Students were happy and learn quickly on the basis of the hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teacher create positive atmosphere in the class then students have no problem of discipline and behavior in education. Students response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in a hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in the class through different religious activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s behavior and personality about religious perspective during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.
12.What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.
- It made me good organizer.
- It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
- It enabled me how to create positive atmosphere in the classroom to develop the religious personality of students.
- It built confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students for improving behavior regarding religious activities.
- Before these activities I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
- I started finding out new things before I have not insert them. But when I started my project a grate change brought in my thinking.
- I capable to find out new things.
- It made me good effective teacher and mentor.
- It made me good role model.
- It made me confident. Teacher discipline can help influence other to be a better person.
- It made me capable to understand how to create classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to maintain behavior and personality at primary level.
- It tells me how negative punishing atmosphere effect on student’s personality level and communication.
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