AIOU Solved Thesis Role Of Technology For Improvement In Learning Of Student’s Language At Primary Level
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Name of the School (Govt Model Primary School Kot Hussain)
(Overall background of the participants of the project; area/school (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)
GMPS KOT HUSSAIN
GMPS KOT HUSSAIN was situated at main Eminabad Road. There were 6 teachers and 250 students enrolled in the school. The school building was looking very good. There were more than 5 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities are available for the students.
This action research project titled “ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVEMENT IN LEARNING OF STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE AT PRIMARY LEVEL DURING COVID-19” at GMPS KOT HUSSAIN.
Demographic details of participants: For the present research 30 participants were selected from the School students, their ages were between 12- 16 years. 2 teachers were selected as respondents. Among 30 students, there are 15 girls and 15 boys thus they make a total of 30 students and 2 teachers as a sample for the present research. So total sample size was 32 respondents.
The socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status was not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions are not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children’s studies. The participants belong to middle-class families who don’t have rich sources for learning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.
Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a Government Model Primary school “GMPS Kot Hussain” which is situated in the district of Gujranwala.
The school has great discipline and is very organized in the teaching curriculum test board. The school also shows a great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.
Occupation / Profession and earning trends:
That’s was the rural area most people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well-educated jobs and remaining were laborers.
I notice that the literacy rate of the village was not so bad. Literacy rate 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parents’ meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the village. Almost 20% of parents were well educated and other parents were illiterate.
Special Traits of Community:
The community where the school was situated has good hobbies like a gardening, plantation, and playing cricket, football. Students participate in games and then go to a high level. The private school was present in this village. People respect to the teachers.
Managing children at home
(Using educational Games /Apps
“ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVEMENT IN LEARNING OF STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE AT PRIMARY LEVEL DURING COVID-19”.
1.Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
(Give the background and rationale of the study)
The reason behind the selection of the topic: This action research was designed to investigate the role of technology in the development of students’ language during COVID-19. Although, the present topic has been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the parents during COVID-19. This study is to gain awareness about technology and students’ language development “This research provides insight to determine the effectiveness of the communication in students. “.“ This study will help the school environment in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately lead to self-motivation among students regarding communication skills, student concentration and increase the achievement level of the students as well.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Effect of Educational Games and APPS on the language learning of students. The objective of this study was to investigate the students learning and how it influenced by Educational Games and Apps. Because in this era of technology and social media, almost every person is engaged in these activities which influenced their health and other activities.
The use of YouTube videos among students has reached high levels and has affected their study time, poor grammar, and wrong spellings when socializing on YouTube videos as well as diverting their attention from their studies. Students spend much of their study time on social networks than in their academic undertakings and it has affected their Grade Point Average (GPA). Investigation on the impact of YouTube videos was done here in Malaysia which focused on student’s Pronunciation in tertiary institution just a few research has been done so far in the tertiary institution pertaining to this topic and the researcher’s respondent were information technology students.
The advanced and improved usage of social media platforms such as Facebook has become a worldwide phenomenon for quite some time. Though it all started has been a hobby for several computers literate individual has changed to become a social norm and existence-style for students around the world. According to the principal of the school, the students and teenagers have especially recognized these social media platforms to be able to contact their peers, share information, reinvent their personas and showcase their social life.
2.What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
(Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for a better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions)
When I discuss the whole matter and problem of language learning and usage of computer devices of students to my other colleagues and senior teachers it was argued that The importance of ICT now a day in our life is recognized worldwide and as a result of this, the subject has been given a place in the school curriculum. The researcher conducted this study which focused on “Analysis the impact of ICT in enhancing students learning the language at Primary level.
Nowadays, in the age of mass media and electronic communication, the vast majority of verbal information exchange among people takes place through oral communication. Thus of the four basic skills in language learning, listening, reading, speaking, writing. Speaking seems to be the most important one in terms of judging a learner´s effective ability to use the language. Proficiency in the English language is considered an indicator of success in every country. A good level of proficiency is a prerequisite for getting a good job there. Spoken language production is often considered one of the most difficult aspects of language learning. In reality, many language learners find it difficult to express themselves in spoken language in the target language. Each student has their own problems.
One of the greatest widespread problems among learners of foreign languages is their considerably lower speaking performance when compared to their passive knowledge. Those Learners who are not able to express their thoughts and opinions satisfactorily generally use a more simplified language that does not match their overall acquired level often make mistakes and slips speak slowly and less fluently, making frequent pauses and thinking of suitable or correct words are usually very shy and hesitant when it comes to speaking, try to avoid such situations if possible, do not cooperate with the teacher or with their peers respond briefly, often using only one-word answers, e.g. “Yes “or “No “sometimes have nothing to say at all in such learners, the poor speaking performance is a big handicap, as it makes their ability to use the language for its most important purpose the exchange of information limited. This leads to frustration and anxiety seldom do such people lose all love for the language and get discouraged from further studying.
3.What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem)
Many studies have been done showing the impact of technology on students learning of language. Some have studied specific tools that can be used in content areas such as English, Math, Social Studies, and Science, while others are broader and look at the impact of technology on education and student achievement as a whole. A report sponsored by the Software Publishers Association (SPA) conducted from 1990 1994 looks at the effectiveness of technology in schools. A meta-analysis of 20 studies was conducted to assess the use of technology-based instruction on student achievement (Sivin Kachala & Bialo, 1994). “The measurement used as effect size. In this study that focused on the use of word processing as an instructional tool, an average effect size of 0.27 was found for improvement in the quality of writing due to using word processing programs. This effect size in a meta-analysis is considered traditionally to be in the range of statistically significant. According to Kulik and Kulik (as cited in Sivin-Kachala & Bialo, 1994), an effect size of 0.3 is statistically significant in showing a “moderate but significant effect.” The effect size found by the SPA was small but statistically significant. The researcher believed that Computer word-processing did have a positive impact on student achievement. The glaring threat to validity that is seen in this study is that the SPA spearheaded it. This group publishes new software; they have a vested interest in convincing educators to see technology as a positive tool. If technology contributes positively to student achievement, educators may purchase more of it from the SPA. Additionally, effect sizes vary between different research designs. The researcher compared the study’s 0.27 effect size to Kulik and Kulik’s 0.3 statistically significant sizes, but there was no explanation as to the designs of either study. Internet video streaming is another new Computer technology that is being increasingly used in classrooms today. A study published in 2006 evaluated the effects of video streaming on educational achievement (Boster, Meyer, Roberto, Inge, & Strom. 2006). This study used a pretest-posttest control group design and randomized student assignment to the groups. The groups included 913 third and eighth-grade science and social studies students and 38 teachers from 13 schools in the southeastern part of the United States. Investigators identified three different Standards of Learning (SOL) that were taught at roughly the same time in all schools. Students were then randomly placed in the control group or experimental group. Investigators then chose 10 video clips that corresponded with the SOL being taught. In the experimental group over the course of 30 days, the pretest was given, all 30 video clips were shown, and the posttest was administered. In the control group, the same pretests and posttests were also given, but no streaming video was used. In the third-grade social studies experiment, the number of correct answers on the pretest of 741 students ranged from 0 to 13; A limitation of this experiment that might decrease validity is that the study was limited to third and eighth-graders in science and social studies; however, the data are promising, and the outcomes of the experiment were consistent with the proposition that streaming Internet video does improve student achievement”.
“Another change in education that has recently come about is interactive distance learning that uses online videoconferencing and teleli stenings. Cavanaugh (1999) performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of this new Computer learning on student achievement. The data used were studies that involved K-12 distance education from all over the country”.
“Quasi-experimental studies were used in addition to experimental studies. Quasi-experiments have lower internal validity but tend to produce realistic results, thus raising the external validity (as cited in Cavanaugh, 1999). Of the 59 studies found, 19 were chosen for inclusion in the study because they met the following criteria: online videoconferencing and tellies tunings interactive distance education used for grades K-12; the study was published between 1980 and 1998; free of any obvious flaws, and had an experimental or quasi-experimental design that provided quantitative outcomes in order for effect size to be calculated. The effect size was a standardized estimate of the difference in achievement in the control and experimental groups’ mean posttest scores. The control group was taught using traditional methods while the experimental group was taught using online interactive distance education.
“The effect of Computer technology on standardized test scores in West Virginia has also been studied. In 1990, the West Virginia Basic Skills/Computer Education (BS/CE) technology implementation began that provided hardware, software, and training for K-6 students to learn basic skills (Mann, Shake shift, Becker, & Kottkamp, 1999). A statewide test score increase was seen after the implementation of this training. The study’s purpose was to decipher the extent to which test score increases were related to the BS/CE technology initiative. There were 18 schools selected in the state of West Virginia with the help of a state education advisory group to be included in this study. They were chosen based on achievement, perceived BS/CE insensitivity, geographic location in the state, and socioeconomic status. The student sample consisted of 950 5th grade students from the 18 school sample. The target population for the study was all K-6 students in West Virginia. Surveys were given to and interviews were conducted with all 950 students that focused on BS/CE use and the students’ attitudes toward computers and technology. In addition, the Stanford-9 achievement test score data were used to measure achievement gain from 1996-1997 and 1997-1998.
Computer Technology In English learning and Teaching
The content area of English has also seen changes due to technology. A large-scale study was done in 1996 (Paul, Vanderzee, Rue, & Swanson, 1996) showed the positive impact that the Computer Advantage Learning Systems’ Accelerated Reader (AR) literacy program had on attendance and standardized test scores. AR is a system of computerized testing and record-keeping whose goal is to increase literature-based reading practice and positively impact student literacy. In the AR program, a student chooses a book to read from a list of 12,000 possibilities. After he has finished reading, he completes a computerized assessment. In the study, 2,511 schools in Texas that used AR were compared to 3,500 Texas schools of similar demographics that did not use AR. The null hypothesis of the study was that the Accelerated Reader program would have no effect on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test scores or attendance in Texas schools.
4.What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/description from literature?
(what are the key terms in your topic or study? What do you mean by these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project)
Variables of the study:
Two variables included in this research. One is the independent variable and one is the dependent variable. The use of technology is the independent variable and student’s language learning is the dependent variable. Now day Technology included so many things some of these are discussed below.
Students, even at the primary school level, are able to acquire an impressive level of skill with a broad range of computer software. Although the specific software tools in use will likely change before these students enter the world of work, the students acquire a basic understanding of how various classes of computer tools behave and a confidence about being able to learn to use new tools that will support their learning of new software applications.
The Punjab government’s PMIU and PITB have teamed up to launch “Taleem Ghar” – an initiative to enable remote learning of students between grades 1-8.
The Centre for Global Development (CGD) recently recorded data for the official education system responses to COVID-19 around the world. When seen in the light of World Bank’s classification method for countries’ income levels, the data helps analyze the effects of the pandemic on student learning and the gaps that may arise in student performance levels. Countries with low-income levels stand to lose a lot, as governments are ill-equipped to provide remote learning opportunities. It is also important to note that it would lead to a gap between the education skill level of high-income countries and low-income countries, in effect widening the gap between poor and rich countries in the near future.
Strong grip on grammar:
Most students are very easy to get confused with English grammar, while grammar is very needed to form the right sentence. If the students do not have grammar mastery, of course, they will not be able to produce sentences that grammatically right. Realizing that the grammar students have is very weak, so they feel embarrassed when they want to produce English sentences orally.
Fluency in Speaking
Fluency in a language means speaking easily, reasonably quickly, and without having to stop and pause a lot. The more English you speak, the easier you will find speaking. Be confident about speaking in English. Speaking fluency is also an important component of communication competence because the ability to speak fluently can help the speaker to produce continuous speech without comprehension difficulties for the listener and to maintain the communicative ideas more effectively.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word is pronounced. Pronunciation refers to the ability to use the correct stress, rhythm, and intonation of a word in a spoken language. When we talk about pronunciation, we focus on the word rather than the individual sound, as with articulation. A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Social Networking Sites:
These sites are significant examples of the latest progress in the field of technology. Social networking sites include Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Skype, WhatsApp Messenger, Google Talk, Google Messenger, etc. These sites are used for a lot of purposes by people from different walks of life but the primitive aim is to interact with friends, make relationships and learn communication from the experiences of other people.
A multimedia projector is a compact, high resolution, full-color projector capable of projecting text, images, video, and audio content. Typically, the projector will feature inputs for a computer, DVD player, VCR, CD player, and storage device. Multimedia projectors can be connected to computers, VCRs, DVD players, and cable boxes. The images transmitted from the device are then transmitted into a special digitized light that is reflected on thousands of mirrors within the projector, which shines the image onto a screen.
audio-visual aids are defined as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc. used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”. These are more helpful tools for bringing clarity to the concepts. In this way, students understand easily and increase self -confidence and communication in their personalities.
5.what did you want to achieve in this research project?
(Objective/ purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project)
- Research Objectives
“The aim of this study is to analyze the “Role of Technology for Improvement in Learning of Students’ Language at Primary Level During Covid-19.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:
- “To analyze the relationship between technology and students’ communication skill”.
- “To check the effect of Educational Games and Apps on the language development of during COVID-19.
- “To compare the effectiveness of the Computer Technology method of teaching and simple traditional method of teaching in Primary level schools.
- “To find out the significant difference of Technology-based method of teaching (Games/APPS) in Primary schools”.
- Research Questions
RQ1.What is the relationship between technology and student’s communication skill?
- RQ2. What is the effect of Educational Games and Apps on language development during COVID-19?
RQ3.What is the comparison of the effectiveness of the Computer Technology-based method of teaching and simple traditional method of teaching at Primary level schools?
- RQ4.What is the significant difference of Technology-based method of teaching (Games/APPS) in Primary schools”?
Critical Question: What is the impact of Technology on students’ language development?
6.Who were the participants in your project?
(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g. the early grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class 8 who did not have good communication skills)
The population of the study comprised girls studying at GMPS Kot Hussain, who has a lack of communication due to lack of technology usage.
A total of “30” students and 2 teachers were taken as a sample of the study. Eminabad City was taken as a Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, the total sample size was 32 respondents including teachers and students. Students were selected from the 5th class. This sample provides appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school GMPS Kot Hussain.
7.How did you try to solve the problem?
(Narrate the process stepwise. The procedure of intervention and data collection)
All research methods and techniques that will be used in this study are given below.
The research method may describe in three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method, and Mixed Method. In the study, the quantitative research method was used, because data was collected by using a questionnaire in the light of students’ and teachers’ perceptions.
It is descriptive and surveys research about “Role of technology for improvement in learning of students’ language at a primary level during covid-19”.
A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of the public schools in Pakistan. The data was collected from student’s public schools by filling up the questionnaire.
A convenient sampling technique was used in this study.
In research, a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 30 students and 2 teachers were selected from government schools.
Data collection procedure
Data was collected through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled by one student according to his point of view. 2 questionnaires were filled by two teachers according to their point of view. In this way 32 questionnaires filled by 32 respondents. On the basis of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students, and provided solutions to sort out these problems. Open-ended and closed-ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed-ended questionnaires, 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2), and Strongly Disagree (DA=1).
- Data Analysis
Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study, the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analysis of data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means and minimum/maximum values, etc.
8.What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
(For example observation, Questionnaire, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test, etc.)
The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. The questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study. The questionnaire was developed in this way;
Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:
1-Closed Ended Questionnaire for students about technology and its impact on student’s Language development.
2-Open Ended Questionnaire for students about Language development.
3-Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for good focus in the classroom that enhance communication skills.
Questionnaire for students:
Following 20 questions were prepared for the questionnaire.
- Educational Games and Apps develop critical thinking in students at the Primary level.
- Using educational Games and Apps improves student’s communication skills at any level.
- The use of educational Games and Apps allows students to take greater control of their language learning.
- Students can communicate with international peers on education-related matters by using Educational Games and Apps.
- Providing Internet access to any level students would be beneficial for learning in schools as well as in homes also.
- The multimedia projector can help students in communication like presentations in the class.
- YouTube videos improve the language of students.
- ICT supports various students learning styles (e.g. use of the medium for auditory and visual learners).
- Presentations through MS PowerPoint and digital media improves students’ confidence and communication.
- Educational Games and APPS allows the students to learn more in the time they have for studies.
- Use of Technology for personal productivity.
- Students can use ICT also to create their own digital learning resources (web-pages, blogs, mind maps, etc.).
- Effective use of Computer Skills shows significant improvement in communication skills.
- ICT facilities students as well as teachers for teaching specific concepts (e.g. Computer-based courseware and tutorials).
- Computer and Internet skills are valued in today’s academic and professional environments.
- ICT has a stronger effect on developing self-confidence, punctuality, problem-solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, language development, and adaptability.
- . The use of audio-visual aids enhances the communication skills of students.
After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.
9.What were the findings and conclusion?
- Overall majority 90 % of the respondents agreed that Educational Games and Apps develop critical thinking in students at the Primary level.
- Overall majority 92 % of the respondents agreed that Using Educational Games and Apps improves student’s communication skills at any level.
- Overall majority 95% of the respondents agreed that Use of educational Games and Apps allows students to take greater control of their language learning.
- Overall majority 96 % of the respondents agreed that Students can communicate with international peers on education-related matters by using Educational Games and Apps.
- Overall majority 85% of the respondents agreed that Providing Internet access to any level of students would be beneficial for learning in schools as well as in homes also.
- Overall majority 91 % of the respondents agreed that a Multimedia projector can help students in communication like a presentation in the class.
- Overall majority 93% of the respondents agreed that YouTube videos improve the language of students.
- Overall majority 97 % of the respondents agreed that ICT support various students learning styles (e.g. use of the medium for auditory and visual learners).
- Overall majority 92% of the respondents agreed that Presentations through MS PowerPoint and digital media improve students’ confidence and communication.
- Overall majority 91 % of the respondents agreed that Educational Games and APPS allow the students to learn more in the time they have for studies.
- Overall majority 93 % of the respondents agreed on the Use of Technology for personal productivity.
- Overall majority 93 % of the respondents agreed that Students can use ICT also to create their own digital learning resources (web-pages, blogs, mind maps, etc.).
- Overall majority 90 % of the respondents agreed that Effective use of Computer Skills shows significant improvement in communication skills.
- Overall majority 90 % of the respondents agreed that ICT facilities students as well as teachers for teaching specific concepts (e.g. Computer-based courseware and tutorials).
- Overall majority 89 % of the respondents agreed that Computer and Internet skills are valued in today’s academic and professional environments.
- Overall majority 87% of the respondents agreed that ICT has a stronger effect on developing self-confidence, punctuality, problem-solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, language development, and adaptability.
- Overall majority 97 % of the respondents agreed that Use of audio-visual aids enhances the communication skills of students.
The conclusions drawn from the study are as follows:
The results obtained by the study reveal that technology plays a significant role in language development and managing children at home during COVID-19. The researcher in this study, from the findings, concluded by the analysis of data that Student’s ratio of using the internet for learning is higher than using printed material/textbooks, for problem-solving skill, communication skills, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence, and honesty in high school students.
According to the perceptions of Primary school students (an open-ended question), the majority of the respondents agreed that technology has a stronger effect on language development.
Major suggestions as perceived by Primary school students to improve the listening skills of students. By the compulsory computer education, encourage the students’ participation in ICT, develop hobbies in students, arrange computer games and develop the computer labs, etc.
10.Summary of the Project.
(What and how was research conducted-main objective, process, and findings)
University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub-theme. The topic that I choose “Role of technology for improvement in learning of students’ language at a primary level during covid-19”.
I choose this topic because I have to face the problem with this during COVID-19. Students wasting much of their time on bad activities. it was difficult to create concentrating environment in the home during COVID-19. Teli taleem ghr and other educational Apps played an important role in the development of a language of students and managing children at home.
The sample comprised a total of 30 students and 2 teachers drawn from the Primary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by a simple random sampling technique.
Questionnaire instrument used for teachers and students for data collection. The research design was descriptive. The result was finding that technology has a good impact on student’s communication skills. Effective Educational Games and APPS in-home helpful for maintaining concentration and motivation of students. In this way, students learn a language easily with full concentration.
11.How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned? (Self-reflection)
The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of technology on student’s language development. My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students and teachers of govt Model Primary School Kot Hussain situated in Eminabad.
The use of technology is very important in the study because it helps to build communication skills in students. Appreciation and praise offering are very helpful for building communication in students.
So I used a different technique for creating a Hygienic atmosphere in the home. Students were happy and learn quickly on the basis of the hygienic atmosphere at home. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas parents create a hygienic atmosphere in the home and used technology then students have no problem of communication and focus in education. Students respond to the implementation of teaching if they teach in a hygienic atmosphere. I created a hygienic atmosphere in the home through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s motivation level and communication by using educational Games and APPS. Finally, I feel satisfied.
12.What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added some new things to my knowledge key points are given below.
- It made me a good organizer.
- It made me ready for everything that is thrown their way.
- It enabled me that we can perform every task from students just on the basis of technology.
- It enabled me how to create a Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building self-motivation and communication in students.
- Appreciation is helpful for building communication skills in students.
- It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
- Before these activities, I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
- I started finding out new things before I have not inserted them. But when I started my project a great change brought in my thinking.
- I am capable to find out new things for language development in students.
- It made me a good effective teacher and mentor.
- It made me a good role model.
- It made me confident. Teacher ‘self-motivation can help influence other to be a better person.
- It made me capable to understand how to use technology in the classroom according to student’s psyche to maintain self-confidence and motivation at the Primary level.
- It tells me how an unhygienic atmosphere affects student’s self-motivation level and focus.
Q.13 List the works you cited in your project.
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