AIOU Teacher Education In Pakistan 829 Solved Past Papers
Teacher education in Pakistan course code; 829
AIOU Teacher Education In Pakistan 829 Solved Past Papers Semester Terminal exams 2020
AIOU Teacher Education In Pakistan 829 Solved Past Papers
Describe the usability of teaching methods recommend by Muslim scholars in the current teaching-learning environment?
Teaching Methods in Islam
The ancient Muslim educationists adopted a special method of teaching that promotes the recipients of knowledge. The following are some articles on the teaching methods:
Teachers ought to treat their pupils leniently and kindly and avoid any tension and cruelty since these two things impede mental growth and author serious psychological complexes. Ibn Khaldun says, “Tensional teaching injures the pupils, especially the children and the harshly educated.”
Pupils of irregular behavior and negligence should be disciplined if they ignore the advice. The ancient Muslim teachers used to beat and detain even the kings’ sons. Abu Merriam, the educator of al-Amin and al-Mamun*, caned them so harshly that one’s arm was injured. Before his father, the boy showed his hand, and the teacher was summoned. “Why did Mohammed –al-Amin- complain to you?” asked ar-Rashid. “He is full of naivete and slyness,” answered the teacher. The caliph then said, “You may kill him! His death is better than being dull.”
In his instructions to al-Ahmer, one of his sons’ educators, ar-Rashid said, “You should first reform him by means of kindness and lenience. If he refuses, then you should use tension and coarse.”
Fathers used to say to the educators of their sons, “Your share is the flesh while ours is the bones.”
Beating and tormenting were the most important means of education. This is incorrect indeed since it is undecided to Islam that regards mercy, kindness, and lenience as the most matters on which education should settle. All of the crooked ways should be avoided in the educational process. Teachers should not exceed in disciplining the irregular and deviant pupils since it creates mental complexes and impedes the maturity and prosperity of education and personality. Ibn Khaldun says, “If the educator uses coercion, this will distress the pupil and confine his delighted spirit and urge on indolence and lead to lies and malignancy for avoiding more coercion. In addition, this coercion will teach the pupil trickery and fraud, and the pupil may take them as customs and qualities forever. The educator, whether teacher or father, should not exaggerate in disciplining the sons.” The Prophet (s) said, “Teach without chiding. Teachers are preferable to the scolders.” Ibn Quteiba said, “Teachers are recommended not to use tension or pride.”
Teachers are compared to compassionate fathers. It is said, “Teachers are the substitutes of fathers.” It is also said, “Teachers ought to care for the student’s interests and treat them like the dearest sons with kindness, courtesy, benevolence, and patience on probable alienation. Teachers should apprise of their flaws by means of advice and sympathy, not chiding and
Muslim educationists believe that the insinuative rebuke should be within the teaching methods in case pupils show irregular behavior or imperfect work since this method is more impressive than expression. They said, “Teachers who notice an irregularity or a crooked behavior should not state it directly to the pupils. They should insinuate within their common speech by referring to the disadvantages of such behavior. This will achieve the intended convention.”
This method, in fact, is more useful than direct reproach, which may lead to rebellion and insistence on the wrong.
Muslim educationists have been greatly concerned with the learners’ affairs. They constituted the considerable methods that aim at disciplining and acquiring virtuous ethics and noble manners.
Learners should seek knowledge for God’s sake purely, neglecting any worldly interest or valueless purpose. God will surely raise the respect of such learners, facilitate the difficulties, grant perception and intelligence, and combine the welfare of this world and the Hereafter
Learning and Teaching in Islam
To acquire knowledge is a religious duty in Islam. The Prophet has said, “To seek knowledge is incumbent upon every Muslim.” According to fully established hadiths which elucidate the meaning of this saying, knowledge here means the three principles of Islam: unity or tawhid; prophecy or nubuwwat; and eschatology or ma’am. In addition to these principles, Muslims are expected to acquire knowledge of the subsidiary branches and the details of the injunctions and laws of Islam according to their individual circumstances and needs.
AIOU Teacher Education In Pakistan 829 Solved Past Papers
Explain the purpose and importance of teaching practice in teaching education curriculum? How is it different from induction training?
The Importance Of Teaching Practice In Education
Teaching practice is a key component of the undergraduate teacher training program. It is during this period that the student-teacher gets to translate the skills and theory learned into reality through actual classroom teaching. Teaching practice is a vital component of teacher education and training because it provides student teachers with an opportunity to learn from experience in the workplace. Atputhasamy,2005 asserts that student teachers believe that the practical experience of observing expert teachers, receiving feedback, and practicing strategies are the most important factors in their growth as teachers, but there is a widespread outcry about the quality of most of the teachers who have undergone this practice. Training teachers is a partnership between teachers training colleges, secondary schools, and stakeholders in the education system.
Purpose of teaching practice
The purpose of teaching practice is to provide the students with an opportunity to apply their pedagogical knowledge and skills in practice. The aim is to enable the student to design, carry out and evaluate the teaching methods of his/her own sector and to cooperate with other parties and students relating to teaching practice. One of the aims is also that the student will be able to understand his/her role in the larger whole of the profession and in the extended operational environment of the school. An important goal is to learn how to develop and advance one’s competence in development.
The central parts of teaching practice are designing, executing, and evaluating various guidance and teaching processes. First, the student will familiarize himself/herself with the operational environment of his/her practice unit and acquaintance himself/herself with its learning and teaching cultures and curriculum. A student undertaking teaching practice will monitor teaching done by other teachers, possibly act as a teaching assistant and he/she will also learn to know the student groups. The student will create a care plan to aid with all of these aims.
Induction is the support and guidance provided to novice teachers and school administrators in the early stages of their careers. Induction encompasses orientation to the workplace, socialization, mentoring, and guidance through beginning teacher practice
Having achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS), teachers are expected to continue to meet the standards required for that qualification. In addition, they must meet the 6 criteria set out in the induction standards:
1)Seek and use opportunities to work collaboratively with colleagues to raise standards by sharing effective practice in the school.
2)Show a commitment to their professional development by
identifying areas in which they need to improve their professional knowledge, understanding, and practice in order to teach more effectively in their current post, and
with support, taking steps to address these needs.
3)Plan effectively to meet the needs of pupils in their classes with special educational needs, with or without statements, and in consultation with the SENCO contribute to the preparation, implementation, monitoring, and review of Individual Education Plans or the equivalent.
Liaise effectively with parents or carers on pupils’ progress and achievements.
4)Work effectively as part of a team and, as appropriate to the post in which they are completing induction, liaise with, deploy, and guide the work of other adults who support pupils’ learning.
5)Secure a standard of behavior that enables pupils to learn, and act to pre-empt and deal with inappropriate behavior in the context of the behavior policy of the school.
In order to support newly qualified teachers in meeting the standards, a number of entitlements are guaranteed by regulations:
a reduced timetable (of no more than 90% of other equivalent teachers)
support from an induction tutor
a named induction contact at a local education authority or other body
In addition, all teachers undergoing a program of induction are subject to assessment processes, including regular observations every 6–8 weeks a termly review meeting a decision at the end of the induction period to ascertain whether the required standards have been met.
Induction can only be completed in a restricted range of school types. Similarly, teachers who have not completed, and are not completing, induction can only be employed in such school types under special circumstances
Teachers not completing induction
Teachers who have not completed a period of induction are limited in the work they can carry out in eligible schools.
Where a teacher is employed in an eligible school for at least one term, he or she must be offered and must undertake, a program of induction lasting throughout that period.
critically analyze the need of establishing a partnership among teacher training institutions of Pakistan?
Publications regarding the international educational context have begun to highlight partnerships as an increasingly adopted practice in the field of education. As formal policies in the process of training teaching professionals, partnerships have gained significant momentum since the second half of the 1980s and thus represent a powerful ally for the effectiveness of public policies since that time. Partnerships align with the need to rethink the foundations that previously sustained the process of teacher training and have been understood as part of increasing teaching professionalization and recovering the basic quality of education in the second half of the twentieth century.
Context and the Partnership Concept
Discussions and studies on partnership as a social practice go back to the 1970s and 1980s. These studies show that partnerships have complex configurations, with meanings emerging from the diverse activities caused by social dynamics. The concept and characteristics of partnerships depended on the subject, the context, and the area in which it was used. It is worth noting that, overall, aspects of partnership are related to different fields of knowledge such as historical, economic, social, cultural, and political.
Compilations of these studies were published in the early 1990s. These reviews analyze aspects related to the social context, principles, and practices of partnership in both initial and extended teacher education as part of United Kingdom policy
Types of Partnerships in Teacher Education
Although there is a representative set of ongoing partnership experiments in teacher education in countries worldwide (which have already resulted in some theoretical treatises about this social practice), comparisons cannot yet be made. There are peculiarities that have not been sufficiently studied (Lenoir & Raymond, 1998b; Smedley, 2001; Vandyck, 2013) . This warning, however, does not invalidate the effort or attempt to systematically understand the studies as proposed by Furlong et al. (1996). The partnership is considered a breakthrough in teacher professionalization because it favors the articulation of the knowledge of the university and schools. However, studies emphasize that this framework coexists with two other work perspectives also called partnership. The more traditional partnership is the directed partnership, which has long existed but has only been given this name more recently. In criticizing academia, the government uses this term to weaken the role of academia in providing training for teachers
Concrete Lessons about Partnership:
The experience of Québec shows the construction of an inter-institutional agency by AQUFOM, founded in 1990. This entity comprises several universities and functions as an autonomous institutional agency that brings together different groups of professionals in education who are involved in teacher training activities in universities and in elementary schools. In general, this inter-institutional agency aims to intervene in official policies in the educational field and establish itself as an alternate channel to articulate the interests of educational professionals regarding the professionalization of the teaching movement.
pakistan’s education ;
Balochistan faces many challenges in the education sector including a large number of out-of-school children, high dropout rates, wide gender disparities in education indicators, and poor quality of teaching and learning in the classroom.
In 2015/2016, Balochistan allocated 20% of its total budget to education (source: Public Financing of Education in Pakistan)
The government of Balochistan is committed to addressing the multiple challenges in the education sector and has identified the issue of poor access to education as the most important priority and the greatest challenge.
The Balochistan Education Sector Plan 2013-2018 focuses on the following priorities:
Improving access and equity for all girls and boys to school by:
Building and upgrading schools in communities where there is little or no access to school.
1)Improving transition rates between levels (early childhood education to primary, primary to the middle, middle to high).
2)Reducing dropout by improving learning outcomes.
3)Expanding alternate forms of delivery including private sector management, community school development, among others.
Improving the quality of education by:
Developing the capacity of education managers and professionals including teachers, examiners, curriculum, and textbook developers.
Developing learning standards and benchmarks.
Improving assessment capacity.
Preparing a new school language policy conducive to learning.
Governance and management improvements are central to the BESP, which focuses on improving managerial capacity for management and supervision, and improving information collection mechanisms and their use.