How to encouraged developing self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th

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The role of the family context in the Regulation of emotions
The role of the family context in the Regulation of emotions

How to encouraged developing self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th

MANUAL

RESEARCH PROJECT

Bed (1.5 Year / 2.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613

Semester: AUTUMN 2020

Region Islam

Theme: Promoting children wellbeing

Sub-theme: Self-assessment

Topic How to encouraged developing  self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th  at IBN-E- SINA high school     

TOPIC APPROVAL FORM

(Note: This form must be filled and signed on the last day of the 03-days workshop)

Programmed: B.ED 1.5 year

 

Theme: Promoting children wellbeing

Sub-theme: Self-assessment

Topic of Research Project   How to encouraged developing self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th at IBN-E- SINA high school     

 

Workshop Coordinator Signature: ________________________________

(Name)

Resource Person-1 Signature: ______________________________________

(Name)

Resource Person-2 Signature: ______________________________________

(Name)

Date of Approval of Topic: ________________________________________

 

 

DECLARATION

(To be filled and signed by the student and retained by the Controller of Examination)

 

 

How to encouraged developing self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th Roll No.     Registration No., a student of B.ed. Program (1.5 Year / 2.5 Year) at Allama Iqbal Open University do hereby declare that the research project entitles How to encouraged developing self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th at IBN-E- SINA high school            submitted by me in partial fulfillment of Bed (1.5 Year / 2.5 Year) program is my original work and has not been submitted or published earlier. I also solemnly declare that it shall not, in future, be submitted for obtaining any other degree from this or any other university or institution.

I also understand the zero-tolerance policy against plagiarism of the university and the HEC and if my work is found to be plagiarized or copied from someone other’s work at any stage, even after the award of the degree, the work may be cancelled and the degree confiscated.

 

Background

Name of the School (IBN-E- SINA HIGH SCHOOL).

IBN-E- SINA HIGH SCHOOL     

IBN-E- SINA HIGH SCHOOL was situated at main Eminabad Road. There were 12 teachers and 500 students enrolled in the school. School building was looking very good. There were more than 12 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity and other basic facilities were available for the students.

This action research project titled “HOW TO ENCOURAGEDEVELOPING THE SELF-ASSESSMENT SKILL IN THE STUDENT AT GRADE 7TH” at IBN-E- SINA high school.

Demographic details of participants: For the present research 40 participants were selected form the School studying in grade 7th, their ages were between 12-15 years. Among 40 students, there were 20 girls and 20 boys thus they make the total of 40 students as a sample for the present research.

Socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status was not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions was not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children study. The participants belong to middle class families who don’t had rich sources for leaning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.

Location of the school: The present research was conducted in a public school “IBN-E- SINA high school      ” which was situated in the district of Gujranwala.

The school had great discipline and was very organized in teaching curriculum of Gujranwala test board. The school also shows great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.

Occupation / Profession and earning trends:

That’s was rural area mostly people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well educated jobs and remaining were laborers.

Literacy Rate:

I notice that the literacy rate of the village it was not so bad. Literacy rate 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parents meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of village. Almost 20% parents were well educated and other parents were illiterate.

Special Traits of Community:

The community where the school was situated have good hobbies like gardening, plantation, and playing cricket, football. Students participate in games and then go to high level. Private school were present in this village. People respect to the teachers.

Theme:

Promoting children’s well-being

Sub-theme:

(Self-Assessment)

Topic:

HOW TO ENCOURAGE DEVELOPING THE SELF-ASSESSMENT SKILL IN THE STUDENT AT GRADE 7TH

1.Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution

Reason behind the selection of the topic: The aim of this study was to increase self-assessment by using self-monitoring in young children at elementary level. Although, the present topic had been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the students at different level especially at elementary level in their academic careers. This study is to gain awareness about self-monitoring and self-assessment of students “. “The This research provide insight to determine the effectiveness of the strategies used in schools. “.“ This study helped the school environment in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately enhance the self-assessment student’s concentration and increase the achievement level of the students as well.

I have selected the above topic because now a day it was a common problem of all. Students have lack of self-assessment during the period. That’s why students cannot control their reactions and feelings in the class. Students have lack of self-assessment in class on the base of following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution of this problem. These reasons are discussed one by one in detail.

self-esteem:

Unhappy childhood where parents (or other significant people such as teachers) were extremely critical. Poor academic performance in school resulting in a lack of self-assessment. Ongoing stressful life event such as relationship breakdown or financial trouble

Parenting style:

 The way we were treated in our family of origin can affect us long after childhood. For instance, if you had a parent who constantly belittled you, compared you to others, or told you that you would never amount to anything, you likely carry those messages with you today. A parent’s struggles with mental health and substance abuse can also change your relationship with the world.

School anxiety

Anxiety about school or grades can be another deeper issue leading to lack of self-assessment in the classroom. Students who are overwhelmed or stressed by a subject may simply check out, leading to dropping grades and confidence.

Lack of motivation

In some cases, your child’s self-regulating problem may actually be a motivation problem. This lack of motivation can lead to a number issues in the classroom—including disinterest in the material.

Frustration:

Frustration is the unpleasant experience when things are not working the way you want them to work. … In some people, especially those that find it difficult not to blame others for their misfortune, frustration often leads to anger.

Lack of Self-confidence:

Low self-esteem is characterized by a lack of confidence and feeling badly about oneself. People with low self-esteem often feel unlovable, awkward, or incompetent. … They have a fragile sense of self that can easily be wounded by others.

2.What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem

Collaboration and teamwork. Positive option: “I believe that my skills and my ability to work in a team have been valuable during this period.

Selfassessment is a concept introduced during the 1970s by Mark Snyder, that shows how much people monitor their self-presentations, expressive behavior, and nonverbal affective displays. … It is defined as a personality trait that refers to an ability to regulate behavior to accommodate social situations

When I discussed the matter of self –assessment with my colleague and senior teachers in the school. They said that Classroom environment is a critical part of effective instruction”. “Effective classroom management, which begins with efficient lesson planning preparation, helps teacher to teach, self-monitoring and self-assessment the children. “Students thrive in a positive class climate and an environment in which they feel safe, cared for and involved”.

From a student perspective, effective Classroom environment provides students with opportunities to increase self-assessment by using self-monitoring.

From a teacher perspective, effective classroom management involves preventive discipline and interesting instruction”. Similarly, Classroom environment is important because it keeps students motivated to continue their work, provides appropriate instruction and feedback, and increasing self-assessment that can keep disruptive behaviors down to a minimum”. The effective teacher is an extremely good classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom and cannot build self-assessment in students”. “If students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm”.

Well managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish”. “Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students ‘self-monitoring” and student’s self-assessment. “Classroom environment strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students”. “The purpose of education is to provide a self-assessment in children so they can control their thoughts, respect others and control their emotions. “Therefore, teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to build self-assessment.

3.What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles/websites)?

The term assessment is derived from the Latin word ‘assure ’which means ‘to sit beside’ the Assessment is the fourth stage of the lifelong teacher training. It is an essential stage that gives feedback to the student and the teacher on the progress of learning.

In this paper we analyze different perspectives on self-assessment with the aim of displaying the theoretical complexity of this strategy, and of simplifying their use through appropriate educational recommendations.

First, between self-assessment as a learning strategy that a student can activate, and self-assessment as a pedagogic strategy through which the teacher asks the students to reflect on their work. This distinction, coming from different research traditions, will help us to reflect on the goals of each theoretical approach to reach a shared vision.

Second, a definition of self-assessment is provided and each element that integrates this process is explained in detail in order to clarify the importance of this definition in comparison to alternative ones.

Third, we expose the relationship between self-regulated learning and the use of learning strategies by students. To do this, we survey what different self-regulation theories say on self-assessment, collect empirical evidence on this relationship, explain which phases of self-regulation influence self- evaluation, and give and comment on an example to achieve greater concreteness. Subsequently, we analyze how this ability is acquired, and describe the pedagogic conditions that, if the teacher implements them, encourage self-assessment in the students……………….

Finally, the article closes with a brief introduction of the different types of intervention used in the classroom to encourage self-evaluation.

 Theoretical back ground of self-assessment

In the first place, a review of different theoretical perspectives on self-assessment has been realized.

This review has highlighted that the self-assessment process involves self- monitoring own work using the available criteria to assess its adequacy and, if necessary, to modify it. It is, then, an integral part of the self-regulation process that facilitates learning and experiencing one’s progress, an experience that enhances motivation to learn. In fact, one of the main ideas we wanted to convey was that there is an important relationship between self- assessment and self-regulation.

self-assessment is itself a process that promotes learning when correctly implemented (Brown & Harris, 2013), if it is also considered how important self-assessment is for self-regulation and the activation of learning strategies, then the importance of self-assessment increases, especially considering compelling research about the positive educational effects of promoting self-regulation (e.g., Dinah et al., 2008; Paris & Paris, 2011).

In the second place, it has been shown that, self-assessment is important for learning and according to research it is common practice in the classroom.

 

However, many students do not self-assess their work spontaneously nor properly, either because they do not know how to do it due to a lack of specific criteria to be taken into account, or because they do not see the value of spending effort to make such an assessment. It is, therefore, necessary for teachers to explicitly teach students to self-assess their work

. However, a high percentage of teachers do not recognize what self-assessment is useful for – and therefore, how important is it – and how to implement practices that foster it. For this reason, in this study, in addition to exposing the nature and relevance of self-assessment for students’ learning and strategy use, we have exposed and illustrated some procedures that can be used either for teaching self-assessment (e.g., direct instruction, modeling, etc.), or for motivating its use and facilitating its implementation (i.e., mainly rubrics and scripts). The teacher must adapt these procedures to the type of task (e.g., reading, writing, problem solving, conducting experiments, etc.) as self-assessment and self-regulation do not occur in a vacuum, but in the context of specific tasks whose adequate realization responds to different criteria.

 

Finally, the conditions that enhance the effectiveness of teaching self-assessment have also been reviewed. First, it is advisable to allow students to modify their work if they become aware of errors while self-assessing their work, as giving them this opportunity helps them to see the usefulness of self-assessment, and this experience will enhance their motivation to self-assess their work in the future. And second, it is necessary to give students opportunities to practice self-assessment if they are to develop this capacity in the context of different tasks.

In short, self-assessment is a crucial competence for student development, a skill that can be fostered in the classroom following pedagogical criteria, and also very important, the ease of implementation, as demonstrated by previous experiences

Self-assessment activities according to our national policy

Curriculum instruction

Student assessment

Student evaluation

System evaluation

 The primary audiences for this chapter are classroom teachers and teacher educators. The chapter offers a guiding framework to use when considering everyday assessments and then discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students in improving assessment. Administrators also may be interested in the material presented in this chapter.

Assessment usually conjures up images of an end-of-unit test, a quarterly report card, a state-level examination on basic skills, or the letter grade for a final laboratory report. However, these familiar aspects of assessment do not capture the full extent or subtlety of how assessment operates every day in the classroom. The type of classroom assessment discussed in this chapter focuses upon the daily opportunities and interactions afforded to teachers and students for collecting information about student work and understandings, then uses that information to improve both teaching and learning. It is a natural part of classroom life that is a world away from formal examinations—both in spirit and in purpose.

During the school day, opportunities often arise for producing useful assessment information for teachers and students. In a class discussion, for example, remarks by some of the students may lead the teacher to believe that they do not understand the concept of energy conservation. The teacher decides that the class will revisit an earlier completed laboratory activity and, in the process, examine the connections between that activity and the discussion at hand. As groups of students conduct experiments, the teacher circulates around the room and questions individuals about the conclusions drawn from their data.

The students have an opportunity to reflect on and demonstrate their thinking. By trying to identify their sources of evidence, the teacher better understands where their difficulties arise and can alter their teaching accordingly and lead the students toward better understanding of the concept.

As another example, a planning session about future science projects in which the students work in small groups on different topic issues leads to a discussion about the criteria for judging the work quality. This type of assessment discussion, which occurs before an activity even starts, has a powerful influence on how the students conduct themselves throughout the activity and what they learn. During a kindergarten class discussion to plan a terrarium, the teacher recognizes that one of the students confuses rocks for living organisms and yet another seems unclear about the basic needs of plants. So, the conversation is turned toward these topics to clarify these points. In this case, classroom teaching is reshaped immediately as a result of assessments made of the students’ understanding.

Abundant assessment opportunities exist in each of these examples. Indeed, Hein and Price (1994) assert that anything a student does can be used for assessment purposes. This means there is no shortage of opportunities, assessment can occur at any time. One responsibility of the teacher is to use meaningful learning experiences as meaningful assessment experiences. Another is to select those occasions particularly rich in potential to teach something of importance about standards for high-quality work. To be effective as assessment that improves teaching and learning, the information generated from the activity must be used to inform the teacher and/or students in helping to decide what to do next. In such a view, assessment becomes virtually a continuous classroom focus, quite indistinguishable from teaching and curriculum.

ADVANTAGES

Specific skill

Self-assessment can address specific skills in students,

It helps teachers to evaluate on the potential of all students towards learning.

Personal growth

Personal growth: it is a result of the activities and areas of your life, whether personal relationships or communication skills. It arises from the need to evaluate yourself and identify your positive and negative areas.

Exposure

Self-assessment helps students to identify their areas of self-improvement.

Exposing your strengths and weaknesses isn’t easy, it moves you towards self-development.

Self-awareness

You take more active part in shaping your personality, objective look towards how you behave and react at situations.

Problem faced by self-assessment

  • Self-assessmentcan be subjective because students may not be sincere and may      even over-evaluate their own performance.
  • Time consuming for students.
  • Students may not be familiar with the assessment
  • Underestimating achievement.
  • The most common problem I’ve found with selfassessment is that pupils tend to undervalue what they have done. …
  • Overestimating achievement.
  • Forgetting achievement. …
  • Remembering achievement but underestimating its significance. …
  • Misinterpreting the task.

 

Type of self-assessment

Alternative assessment:

Assessments that is different in form than traditional paper-and-pencil assessments.

Performance assessment:

Assessments that allow students to demonstrate their understandings and skills (to a teacher or an outsider) as they perform a certain activity. They are evaluated by a teacher or an outsider on the quality of their ability to perform specific tasks and the products they create in the process.

Portfolio assessment:

A purposeful and representative collection of student work that conveys a story of progress, achievement and/or effort. The student is involved in selecting pieces of work and includes self-reflections of what understandings the piece of work demonstrates. Thus, criteria for selection and evaluation need to be made clear prior to selection.

Embedded assessment:

Assessments that occur as part of regular teaching and curricular activities.

Authentic assessment:

Assessments that require students to perform complex tasks representative of activities actually done in out-of-school settings.

Moral development of self-assessment

Though even very young students are capable to self-assess their work, they don’t al- ways do so, perhaps because one or more of the necessary conditions are not provided in their learning environments.

The conditions necessary for self-assessment are:

  • Awareness of the value of self-assessment.

Unless students are aware of the usefulness of self-assessment, they will not self-assess their work, as it requires effort from them. For this reason, it is important that they understand that self-assessment is a crucial ability for learning.

  • Access to the criteria on which assessment is based.

Students should know these criteria because it should be used to self-assess their work. It is recommended that students have access to these criteria from the beginning of the task, as it has been explained throughout this article (Andrade & Valtcheva, 2009).

  • The task to be assessed needs to be specific.

If the task is too broad or it is not well defined, it can be complicated to self-assess its realization. For this reason, it is recommended that the teachers, having this fact in mind, try to choose tasks that are well defined and with steps clearly established, at least the first time they try to teach their students to self-assess their work.

  • Self-assessment modeling.

As students learn many times through watching an expert, it is recommended that they watch a model (e.g., their teacher or an expert peer in the competence being learned) thinking aloud while self-assessing the realization of a task. As an example, this type of modeling (thinking aloud) is especially effective if it is first performed by the model, and then the students are asked to repeat it, saying aloud the steps they are following and the logic behind them. In this manner, the teacher can detect and correct mistakes during execution.

  • Direct instruction and assistance for self-assessment.

It is necessary that students receive instructions until they understand the procedure and they are capable of being autonomous. This is especially the case if the task of self-assessment is new to them, as in this case they would not know the assessment criteria and how to apply them. Nevertheless, they also need feedback about their own self-assessment, so that they can know whether they are doing it appropriately and, if necessary, what aspects should be improved (Duchy et al., 1999; Griffey, 1995). To carry out adequate instruction in self-assessment, it is therefore crucial that teachers know how to teach it.

Cues that help to know when it is appropriate to self-assessment

It is necessary to give students instructions about when to self-assess. Again, teacher modeling is helpful so students can visualize when to do it.

The fact of observing how one can self-assess one’s own work is not enough to learn how to do it. It is necessary that the teacher provides opportunities to learn how to self-assess because, as it happens with other competences, practice improves this skill. Unfortunately, teachers frequently become discouraged after their first at- tempts to achieve this goal. However, it is important to note that self-evaluation of the way one is doing a task, for example, summarizing a text, is a complex learning activity, as it is necessary not only to internalize strategies as removing the trivial, using

Super ordinate categories, using expressions that include several ideas, selecting the main idea, but also to learn how to apply them, and these acquisitions are not learned all at once. Moreover, it should be noted that self-regulation is not an activity that occurs in a vacuum. The criteria from which to evaluate one’s own work vary depending on the tasks, and so it is not easy to transfer what you know when changing to another task. Consequently, it is necessary that teachers keep track of the fact that learning to self-assess and to self-regulate one’s work in the context of specific tasks requires: a) to train these processes in the context of different tasks, e.g., reading, writing, problem solving, etc., and b) time.

  • Opportunities to review and improve the process of realizing a task as well as the final performance.

An aid to enhance self-assessment is allowing students to return their work if, while self-assessing it, they detect mistakes. If they are not allowed to do it self-assessment loses part of its value, as its goals are allowing the detection and corrections of mistakes, and improving performance. And if self-assessment loses its value, then the students’ motivation for self-assessment decreases, as they feel power- less after detecting mistakes and not being allowed to correct them

 

First (understanding learning intention)

Students understanding to know what skills, knowledge or understanding they are expected to learn, so they can improve their performance.

Second (success criteria and rubrics)

Students need to be told how they will be assessed, so that they can judge for themselves whether or not they have learned what they were expected to.

Third (Effective teacher feedback)

‘Comment-only’ feedback is a more effective aid to learning than ‘comment plus grade’ or ‘grade only’ feedback.

Fourth (student self-assessment)

It is crucial that students learn how to self-assess so they can monitor their own learning, and teachers must consciously build in opportunities for this to happen.

Fifth (peer feedback)

Students can be taught how to provide effective feedback to their peers, and this process benefits both the student who gives the feedback and the student who receives it.

USE OF RUBRIC

  • Use of graphic organizers.
  • Setting learning targets.
  • Time management.

SELF ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE

  • Writing conferences.
  • discussion (whole-class or small-group)
  • Reflection logs.
  • Weekly self-evaluations.
  • Self-assessment checklists and inventories.
  • teacher-student interviews

The term “self-assessment” refers to one’s ability to monitor and adjust one’s behavior or actions as necessary. It is “a critical component of all learning that looks different at different phases of development” (Cooper, 2007, p. 317). Infants and toddlers possess minimal ability for self-assessment and cannot fully control their emotions. They depend on caregivers for assistance in regulating their behavior and actions (Gillespie & Seibel, 2006, p. 34). According to Boyer (2009), “definitions of self-assessment and emotion regulation are, when applied to young children, predicated on the support offered by caregivers and educators” (p. 176). By school age, children can regulate and understand a wealth of emotions that they, as well as others, experience (Bowie, 2010, p. 74). Emotional self-assessment and cognitive self-assessment seem to develop simultaneously (Bodrova & Leong, 2008, p. 57). According to the control-value theory of achievement emotions proposed by Pekrun (2010), children’s attitudes towards academic achievement and self-control are influenced by emotions they associate with completing assignments and the quality of work they submit (cited in Garner, p. 299).

Bodrova and Leong (2008) believe all children should learn to self-regulate, have opportunities to practice the rules of a certain behavior and apply those rules in new situations, possess visual and tangible reminders about self-assessment, and learn from a curriculum which includes and emphasizes play and games (p. 38). Providing the experiences, support, and encouragement that help very young children learn to self-regulate is a critical element in quality care (Gillespie & Seibel, 2006, p. 39).

There is a plethora of research dedicated to the study of self-assessment in young children, and ways teachers and parents can assist in its development. Current studies suggest teaching self-regulatory skills through modeling and scaffolding or self-monitoring (Rafferty, 2010; Reid, Trout, & Schartz, 2005; Bowie, 2010; Florez, 2011; Gillespie and Seibel, 2006; Bodrova & Leong, 2008).

Florez (2011) says the best way to teach self-assessment is through modeling and scaffolding during everyday activities. She suggests modeling, using hints and cues, and gradually withdrawing adult support (p. 49). Similarly, Gillespie and Seibel (2006) state educators can help children self-regulate by observing closely, responding, providing structure and predictability, arranging developmentally appropriate environments, defining age-appropriate limits, and showing empathy and caring. While the observations and opinions of adults are informative, they cannot replace children’s self-reports of their thoughts and feelings (Bowie, 2006, p. 75).

There are many ways to determine a child’s attitude towards his or her ability to self-regulate. Pintrich and Zimmerman (2005) recall, “self-assessment theory has long recognized the importance of a feedback cycle in which individuals systematically self-assess and self-evaluate their behavior” (cited in Reid, Trout, & Schartz, 2005, p. 362). According to Rafferty (2010), self-management interventions have been successfully taught and used by children from all grade levels (p.51).

Mace, Belfiore, and Hutchinson (2005) focused on the method of self-monitoring, which they describe as a “multistage process of observing and recording one’s behavior” (cited in Reid, Trout, & Schartz, p. 362). They believe the individual must identify the target behavior then record the frequency of its occurrence. Rafferty (2010) presents a longer process in which the teacher identifies the target behavior, operationally defines the target behavior, collects baseline data, determines if it is an appropriate behavior to remediate, designs the procedure and all materials, teaches the student how to self-monitor, monitors the student’s progress, and fades the use of intervention (p. 52). At the end of this process, children are expected to recognize when they are exhibiting the undesirable target behavior and determine the appropriate action for correcting the behavior. Axelrod, Zhe, Haugen, and Klein (2009) conducted a study in which students with attention and behavior problems used a self-monitoring log to track their behavior while completing homework. The children were to complete the logs in 3-minute and 10- minute intervals alternately. Participants showed an improvement in on-task behavior during homework completion and the frequency of incomplete homework assignments decreased (p. 331).

Pelco and Reed-Victor (2007) suggest an individualized intervention approach for children with difficulties in learning-related social skills and those who demonstrate chronic or intense problems. They mention O’Neill’s use of a functional behavior assessment to determine the best strategies to meet the specific needs of each student. This method allows for the addition of more guided practice and reinforcement of new skills for children with more severe problems (as cited in Pelco & Reed-Victor, 2007, p. 39).

In a study conducted by Bowie (2010), children ages 5.5-12 years old were interviewed to determine the severity, regularity, and duration of their emotional experiences. The researcher found a correlation between responses to these questions and future externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Children who admitted having difficulty regulating anger were more likely to report depressive symptoms 2.5 years later (Bowie, 2010, p. 81). A study conducted by Rydell (2010) showed a similar result where low levels of emotional regulation foreshadowed long-term behavioral problems (cited in Garner, p. 298).

There appears to be a common belief in current research that self-monitoring is an important part of teaching children to self-regulate. When children are in charge of recording their behavior, they become more aware of the impact they have on others. The data created during this process serves as a visual reminder for them to correct their behavior. Scaffolding also seems to be a vital part of this process. In order for children to reflect on their behavior, they must be shown an example of what is expected. This model serves as another observable cue for children to monitor and adjust their conduct.

4.What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature?

Variables of the study:

Total three variables included in this research. Two were independent variables and one was dependent variable. Self-monitoring and classroom environment were independent variables and student’s self-assessment used as dependent variable.

  1. Selfmonitoring:

Selfmonitoring shows how much people monitor their self-presentations, expressive behavior, and nonverbal affective displays. … It is defined as a personality trait that refers to an ability to regulate behavior to accommodate social situations.

  1. Classroom environment:

Creating a safe, positive classroom environment is key to effective teaching and learning.

Resources in this section address how an instructor might keep students motivated, and how to prevent, detect and deal with cheating, plagiarism and other infractions of academic integrity.  We examine what constitutes professional conduct and civility in an academic setting and how to deal with breaches of both. Information is also available on how instructors might create and maintain a diverse, inclusive and safe classroom environment for building self-assessment in students.

  1. Self-assessmentof Students:

Self-assessment is the ability to assess your weaknesses when things are not going well. Self-regulatory processes begin developing at a young age. Children learn appropriate ways to express their emotions by observing their peers and adult role models. In the Primary Montessori prepared environment (3–6-year-olds), children are taught skills for self-assessment including how to resolve conflicts with peers and utilize strategies for calming down without teacher assistance. The child’s ability to self-regulate is crucial to the flow of the prepared environment. When a child can manage their own behaviors he or she relies less on outside controls.

5.what did you want to achieve in this research project?

  • Research Objectives                                                                               

“The aim of this study was to analyze that “Using self-monitoring to increase self-assessment in young children.” In order to achieve said aims, following objectives were designed:

  • “To analyze the relationship between Classroom environment and students’ self-assessment”.
  • To analyze the relationship between self-monitoring and students’ self-assessment.
  • To find out the problems of the children in building self-regulating behaviour.
  • To give suggestion for the improvement of the situation.
  • Research Questions

RQ1.What is the relationship between Classroom environment and student’s self-assessment?

RQ2.What are the relationship between self-monitoring and students’ self-assessment?

RQ3. “What are the problems of the children in building self-regulating behaviour?

RQ4.What are suggestions for the improvement of the situation?

6.Who were the participants in your project?

Populatio

The population of the study comprised boys and girls studying at IBN-E- SINA high school, Punjab province of Pakistan.

Sample

A total of “40” students (20 boys and 20 girls) were taken as a sample of the study. More Eminabad City was taken as Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, total sample size was 40 respondents including students. This sample provide appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school.

7.How did you try to solve the problem?

Research design:

It was descriptive and survey research about “How to encourage developing the self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th”.

Population:

A population was otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of public school of Pakistan. The data was collected from student’s public schools by filling up the questionnaire.

 Sample and sampling techniques:

In research a sample was a gathering of individuals, that were taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 40 students were selected from public school.

 Data collection procedure

Data was collected by through questionnaires. Closed ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed ended questionnaires 2 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of YES and NO.

8.What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

Instruments:

The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. Questionnaire was the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.

Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:

1-Closed Ended Questionnaire for students about Classroom environment and its impact on student’s self-assessment.

2-Close Ended Questionnaire for students about self-assessment.

3-Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for good focus in the classroom that build self-assessment.

Questionnaire for students:

  1. Is the meaning of Self-assessment activities in classroom is weekly activity?                  Yes/No
  2. Is the term assessment is derived from Latin word?

Yes/No

  1. Is the essential stage of teacher on the feedback of student progress of learning?                        Yes/No
  2. Is assessment usually conjuring up images of at which time an end of unit?                                   Yes/No
  3. Has the students an opportunity to their thinking creative on demonstration?

Yes/No

  1. Can self-assessment address basic type of skills in student?

Yes/No

  1. Is the teachers help to evaluate the potential of all students towards learning?

Yes/No

  1. Is self-Assessments occurring as part of regular teaching and curricular activities is portfolio?                                                             Yes/No
  2. Is a purposeful and representative collection of student work that conveys a story of progress, achievement effort is portfolio self-assessment?

Yes/No

  1. Are assessments allowing students to demonstrate their understandings and Skills perform a certain activity is authentic of self-assessment?

Yes/No

  1. Is self-Assessments that require perform complex tasks representative of activities actually done in out-of-school settings authentic self-assessment

Yes/No

  1. Is awareness of self-assessment unless students are aware of the usefulness of self-assessment?

Yes/No

  1. Should students know these criteria because it should be used to self-assess Their work access of self-assessment

Yes/No

  1. Is task of self-assessment is too broad not well defined; it can be complicated to self-assess its realization?

Yes/No

  1. Are the students receiving instructions understand the procedure and They are capable of being autonomous is cross instruction of self-assessment?

Yes/No

  1. Is students learn many times through watching an expert, it is recommended That they watch a model of task of self-assessment?

Yes/No

  1. What skills student to know the knowledge they are expected to learn Can understanding improve their performance?

Yes/No

  1. Can students taught how to provide success criteria effective and this process benefits both the student gives Feedback?

Yes/No

  1. How students need to be they will be assessed that can judge for themselves that learned the expected is success criteria?

Yes/No

  1. Peer feedback is ‘Comment-only’ feedback is more effective aid to learning

Yes/No

  1. Is it crucial that students learn to self-assess that they student self-assessment can monitor their own learning?

Yes/No

  1. Is Self-assessment helps student’s exposure to identify their areas of self-improvement?

Yes/No

  1. Is the student exposing strengths and weaknesses isn’t easy, it moves you towards self-development and self-awareness?

Yes/No

  1. Is personal growth being personal relationships or communication skills that arises the need to evaluate of student?

Yes/No

  1. Are basic skill helps teachers to evaluate on the potential of all students towards learning?

Yes/No

  1. Is self-assessment being different types of intervention used in the classroom to encourage self-evaluation?

Yes/No

Data analysis

After the collection of the data it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance. SPSS software used for data analysis.

9.What were the findings and conclusion?

    Findings

Is the meaning of Self-assessment activities in classroom is weekly activity?

Findings

A majority (80%) of student feel that the meaning of self-assessment activity in class room is not weekly activity only (20%) student are feel that the meaning of self-assessment activity in class room is weekly activity

 

Conclusion

Students learn about the meaning of self-assessment in class room activity.

Is the term assessment is derived from Latin word?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 35 87.5 87.5 87.5
No 5 12.5 12.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

Majority (87.5%) of student is said that assessment is derived from Latin word only (12.5) students said that not for Latin word

CONCLUSION

Student know about the assessment is derived from Latin word.

Is the essential stage of teacher on the feedback of student progress learning

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 28 70.0 70.0 70.0
No 12 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Majority (70%) student fell that the essential stage of teacher on the student feedback of progress learning. Only (30%) of student are says that not the essential stage of teacher base on the feedback of student progress learning

Conclusion

Student was understanding the teacher want a feedback of student learning progress.

Is the assessment usually conjuring up images of at which time an end of unite?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 32 80.0 80.0 80.0
No 8 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Only (20%) of student think that the assessment usually is not conjures up images of at time at end of unit .and majority (80%) of student think that the assessment is usually conjurer at the end of unit

Conclusion

Student knew about self-assessment takes place at the end of unit.

Has the student an opportunity to their thinking creative and demonstration?

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 19 47.5 47.5 47.5
No 21 52.5 52.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Mostly student (52.5%) thinks that student has not an opportunity to their thinking creative and demonstration. And (47.5%) think that student has an opportunity to think creative and demonstration.

Conclusion

Student has an opportunity to think to create a demonstration.

 

Can self-assessment address basic type of skill in student?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 10 25.0 25.0 25.0
No 30 75.0 75.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Majority (75%) students state that self-assessment cannot address basic type of skill in the student.

Conclusion

Students can address that self-assessment is the specific skill in the student.

 

Is the teacher help to evaluate the potential of all student towards learning?

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 24 60.0 60.0 60.0
No 16 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

A normal (60%) of student says that the teacher helps to evaluate the potential of all students towards learning.

Conclusion

Teacher helps to potentially for learning of student.

 

Is self-assessment occurring as part of regular teaching and curricular activities in portfolio?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 16 40.0 40.0 40.0
No 24 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

Normally (60%) of student says that self-assessment occurring is not a part of regular teaching and curricular activity in portfolio.

Conclusion

Student know that the portfolio self-assessment is not a regular teaching and curriculum activity.

 

Is purposeful and representative collection of student work that conveys a story of program achievement effort is portfolio self-assessment?

 

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 27 67.5 67.5 67.5
No 13 32.5 32.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

 

Finding

Majority (67.5%) students make sure that the purposeful and representative collection of student work that program to achieved effort is portfolio self-assessment

Conclusion

Portfolio self-assessment is the purposes full collection of student work that programmed to achieved the effort.

 

Is self-assessment allowing student to demonstrate their understanding and skill performance certain activity is authentic of self-assessment?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 19 47.5 47.5 47.5
No 21 52.5 52.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

A simple majority (52.5%) of student is says that self-assessment allowing student to demonstrate their understanding and skill performance and activity is not authentic self-assessment.

Conclusion

Student is saying that self-assessment is allowing to demonstrate their understanding skill performance. Activity is not authentic self-assessment.

 

  Is self-assessment that required perform complex tasks representative of activities actually done out of school authentic self-assessment?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 30 75.0 75.0 75.0
No 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

The (75%) student feel that self-assessment that required that performance of complex tasks of activities that done out of school is authentic self-assessment only (25%) of student not sure the knowledge of authentic self-assessment

Conclusion

Authentic self-assessment is required performance of complex tasks of activities that done out of school.

 

Is awareness of self-assessment unless student is aware of the usefulness of self-assessment?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 27 67.5 67.5 67.5
no 13 32.5 32.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Only (32.5) of student feel that awareness of self-assessment is unless student is not aware of the usefulness of self-assessment.

Conclusion

Awareness of self-assessment is very useful of student.

 

should students know these criteria because it should be used to self-assess these work access of self-assessment?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 31 77.5 77.5 77.5
no 9 22.5 22.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

A large majority (77.5%) of student feel that used of self-assess is the work access of self-assessment.

Conclusion

Student know these criteria that should be used to self-assess these work access of self-assessment.

Is task of self-assessment is too broad not well define it can be  complicated to self-assess its realization?

 

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 25 62.5 62.5 62.5
no 15 37.5 37.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

A simple majority (62.5%) of student feel that tasks of self-assessment too broad it can be complicated to self-assess its realization

Conclusion

Tasks of self-assessment is too broad can be complicated to self-assess.

 

Are the students receiving instructions understanding the procedure they are capable of being autonomous is cross instruction of self-assessment?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 16 40.0 40.0 40.0
no 24 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

The (60%) of student feel that receiving instruction are not capable of autonomous of cross instruction of self-assessment

Conclusion

Receiving instruction is not capable of cross instruction of self-assessment.

Is students learn many times through watching an expert it is recommended, that they watch a model of task of self-assessment?

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 12 30.0 30.0 30.0
no 28 70.0 70.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Majority (70%) of student realized that student learn many times that model of task are not of self-assessment.

Conclusion

Student is not agreeing that model of task of self-assessment.

 

 What skill student to know the knowledge they are expected to learn can understanding improves their performance?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 26 65.0 65.0 65.0
no 14 35.0 35.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

A simply (65%) of student feel that specific skill of student that the knowledge are expected to learn to understanding to improved their performance

Conclusion

Student skill to know the knowledge that are expected to learn to understanding to improved their performance.

Can student taught how to provide success criteria effective and this process benefits both the student gives feedback?

 

 

 

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 13 32.5 32.5 32.5
no 27 67.5 67.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Only (32.5%) students taught to provide success criteria that effect the process of feedback

Conclusion

Student cannot teach that provides success criteria effect the process of student given feedback.

 

How student need to be they will be assessed that cans jugged for them self that learned the expected is success criteria?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 36 90.0 90.0 90.0
no 4 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

Majority (90%) of student feel that student need to be assess that can jugged to self-learning that expected success criteria

Conclusion.

Student need to assessed that can learned the expected the success criteria.

 

Peer feedback is comment only feedback is more effective aid of learning?

 

 

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 17 42.5 42.5 42.5
No 23 57.5 57.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Majority (57.5%) of student are not agreeing that peer feedback is not more effective aid of learning.

Conclusion

Peer feedback is not only feedbacking its more effective aid student learning.

 

Is it crucial that student learn to self-assess that they student self-assessment can monitor their own learning?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 32 80.0 80.0 80.0
no 8 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Huge majority (80%) student are agreed that student learn to self-assess that the student self-assessment can be monitoring their learning.

Conclusion

Self-assessment is self-assessing can be monitoring their learning.

 

 

 

Is self-assessment help student’s exposure to identify their areas of self-improvement?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 25 62.5 62.5 62.5
no 15 37.5 37.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

A simple (62.5%) student said that self-assessment helps the student’s exposure to identify the self-improvement areas.

Conclusion

Student, s exposure to identified self-improvement areas.

Is the student exposing strengths and weaknesses are not easy it moves you towards self- development and self-awareness?

 

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 19 47.5 47.5 47.5
no 21 52.5 52.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

Majority of student (52.5%) student feel that the student and weakness is not easy it moved towards self-development is self-awareness.

Conclusion

Student exposing strengths or weaknesses are not easy it is a self-development and self-awareness.

Is personal growth being personal relationship or communication skill that arises the need to evaluate of student?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 30 75.0 75.0 75.0
no 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

 

Finding

Large majority (75%) can agree that personal growth relationship or communication skill that arise the need to evaluate the student.

Conclusion

Student agrees that personal growth was personal relationship or communication skill which arises to evaluate the students.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are basic skill help teachers to evaluate on the potential of all students towards learning?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 22 55.0 55.0 55.0
no 18 45.0 45.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

Student was confused about skill (55%) of student only (45%) student can sure that basic skill is not help the teacher to evaluate potentially of all student according to learning.

Conclusion

Basic skill is not helping the teacher to evaluate the potential of all students.

 

 Is self-assessment being different type of intervention used in the classroom to encourage self-evaluation?

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 35 87.5 87.5 87.5
no 5 12.5 12.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0  

Finding

Majority (87.5%) student feel that self-assessment is different type of assessment in classroom to encourage self-evaluation.

Conclusion

self-assessment is different type of intervention in the class room to encourage of self-evaluation.

The aim of this article was to clarify the complexity of the self-assessment process, and to provide guidance to facilitate the work of teachers to promote its use. With this purpose, three tasks have been carried out, each of which represents a specific contribution.

In the first place, a review of different theoretical perspectives on self-assessment has been realized. This review has highlighted that the self-assessment process involves self- monitoring own work using the available criteria to assess its adequacy and, if necessary, to modify it. It is, then, an integral part of the self-regulation process that facilitates learning and experiencing one’s progress, an experience that enhances motivation to learn. In fact, one of the main ideas we wanted to convey was that there is an important relationship between self- assessment and self-regulation. Though self-assessment is by itself a process that promotes learning when correctly implemented (Brown & Harris, 2013), if it is also considered how important self-assessment is for self-regulation and the activation of learning strategies, then the importance of self-assessment increases, especially considering compelling research about the positive educational effects of promoting self-regulation (e.g., Dinah et al., 2008; Paris & Paris, 2011).

In the second place, it has been shown that, self-assessment is important for learning and according to research it is common practice in the classroom. However, many students do not self-assess their work spontaneously nor properly, either because they do not know how to do it due to a lack of specific criteria to be taken into account, or because they do not see the value of spending effort to make such an assessment. It is, therefore, necessary for teachers to explicitly teach students to self-assess their work. However, a high percentage of teachers do not recognize what self-assessment is useful for – and therefore, how important is it – and how to implement practices that foster it. For this reason in this study, in addition to exposing the nature and relevance of self-assessment for students’ learning and strategy use, we have exposed and illustrated some procedures that can be used either for teaching self-assessment (e.g., direct instruction, modeling, etc.), or for motivating its use and facilitating its implementation (i.e., mainly rubrics and scripts). The teacher must adapt these procedures to the type of task (e.g., reading, writing, problem solving, conducting experiments, etc.) as self-assessment and self-regulation do not occur in a vacuum, but in the context of specific tasks whose adequate realization responds to different criteria.

Finally, the conditions that enhance the effectiveness of teaching self-assessment have also been reviewed. First, it is advisable to allow students to modify their work if they become aware of errors while self-assessing their work, as giving them this opportunity helps them to see the usefulness of self-assessment, and this experience will enhance their motivation to self-assess their work in the future. And second, it is necessary to give students opportunities to practice self-assessment if they are to develop this capacity in the context of different tasks.

 

 

 

 

10.Summary of the Project

University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub theme. My topic that I selected “HOW TO ENCOURAGEDEVELOPING THE SELF-ASSESSMENT SKILL IN THE STUDENT AT GRADE 7TH”. I selected this topic because I had to face problem about self-assessment in the school. it is difficult to create concentrating environment in the class during teaching.

The sample comprised a total of 40 students and 4 teachers drawn from Public school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.

The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a self-monitoring system on the Self-assessment behaviors of children in a mixed-age early childhood classroom. Data was collected using questionnaire, and student feedback. Findings indicated that disruptive behaviors increased and children’s ability to communicate their emotions and recognize emotions in others only slightly increased. Although the results displayed minimal changes in students’ ability to self-assessment, some children appeared to become more aware of their feelings and utilized effective strategies for sharing how they felt and improving their mood. Further research might focus on a smaller group of children that need assistance with self-assessment or include an easier method of obtaining student feedback.

11.How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

The aim of this study was to investigate How to encourage developing the self-assessment skill in the student at grade 7th.  My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students and teachers of IBN-E- SINA high school       situated in More Eminabad.in rural areas mostly people not maintain discipline.

Classroom atmosphere is very important element in study because it helps building self-assessment by using self-monitoring in students.

So I used different technique for creating Hygienic atmosphere in the class. Students were developing the skill of self-assessment on the base of hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural area’s teacher create hygienic atmosphere in the lass then students have no problem of self-assessment and focus in education. Students response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s self-assessment by self-monitoring during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.

12.What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.

  • It made me good organizer.
  • It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
  • It enabled me how to create Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building self-assessment in students.
  • Test on board helpful for building self-assessment in students.
  • It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
  • Before these activities I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
  • I started find out new things before I have not insert. But when I started my project a grate change brought in my thinking.
  • I capable to find out new things for building self-assessment in students.
  • It made me good effective teacher and mentor.
  • It made me good role model.
  • It made me confident. Teacher ‘self-assessment can help influence other to be a better person.
  • It made me capable to understand how to create classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to maintain self-assessment and focus at primary level.
  • It told me how unhygienic atmosphere effect on student’s self-assessment level and focus.

Q.13 List the works you cited in your project.

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