How To Solve AIOU Research Project 8613
How To Solve AIOU Research Project 8613 – The overall background of the participants of the project; area/school: (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)
پہلے سوال کے جواب میں آپ اپنے سکول کے ارد گرد کے ماحول، لوگوں کی تعلیمی قابلیت، معاشی حالات، اپنے بچوں کی تعلیم میں
دلچسپی، سکول کی تعداد، ٹیچرز کی تعداد، تعلیمی حالت اور مسائل کے بارے میں لکھیں. ہر پوائنٹ کو پیراگراف کی شکل میں لکھیں۔
In general, the structure of the school was huge and lovely. The school had a lovely playground. The school was in the center of the beautiful mountain. The people of the area additionally helped me in my research. Generally speaking, the environment of the school was great, better for learning and secure for children.
The participants of the study were (4th) grade children who were present in the City Name area. I selected (4th) grade children which are considered in a total of 40 members.
The interest of children in this research led to their keenness for the questionnaire.
The reason for this research was to explain Developing collaboration through co-curricular activities among students in grade 4th. Financial status measures families and network’s remaining in connection to society. It can be comprehensively characterized as a person’s and network’s entrance to money-related, social, and human capital assets. Alongside asset openness: it fills in as a significant determinant to get to personal satisfaction at the individual, family, network, and national levels. Financial contrasts, for example, well-being and nourishment status, home conditions that give access to scholastically related encounters, versatility rates, and monetary resources can surely impact scholarly accomplishments. Low Socioeconomic status associates with lower instructive accomplishment, neediness, and weakness, at last influence our general public, Inequities in well-being conveyance, asset circulation, and personal satisfaction. In this research, by and large, the financial status of the present area of City Name is monetarily not all that good.
Occupation of the Parents:
Parents with high occupation are in a superior condition to help and support their kids ethically, mentally, profoundly and mentally. However, Parents with less lofty occupation because of precariousness and budgetary issues can’t give satisfactory present day offices to upgrade their kid’s instruction. The control of the Parents from area chose in this research is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so great. The children whose Parents with government employment are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction.
Earning trends of the Parents:
Parents with lofty occupation give important offices expected to the upgrade of their kids training. They likewise give them backing and support toward the accomplishment of instructive accomplishment. Then again, children from less esteemed occupations need such huge numbers of favorable circumstances when contrasted with those from the Parents with high renowned occupation. They face a great deal of difficulties both at home and area, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom research, and result in poor scholarly execution.
In 2020, City Name’s literacy rate of 46% for females was noticeably lower than 69% for males; rural literacy was 49% compared to 74% in urban areas. City Name has several research and educational institutions, both public and private.
1. Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution. (Give the background and rationale of the study)
آپ نے یہ سب تھیم اور ٹاپک کیوں منتخب کیا. پہلے سب تھیم کے بارے میں چند لائنز لکھیں اس کی تعریف اور فوائد. پھر ٹاپک
بتائیں اور بتائیں کہ سکول میں آپ کے مشاہدے کے مطابق سٹوڈنٹس کی تعلیمی حالت کیسی ہے اور کیا کیا مسائل ہیں جس کی وجہ سے وہ
مشکلات کا شکار ہیں. آپ نے اس مسئلے کو منتخب کیا کیونکہ یہ زیادہ تر بچوں کو درپیش ہے اور اس کے حل سے بچوں کا مستقبل بہتر ہو گا
اور معاشرے کو فائدہ ہو گا
After talking to some parents and senior teachers I decided to choose the following research problem: “Developing collaboration through co-curricular activities among students of grade 4th”. One of the aims of education is to equip children with the necessities of the changing and developing world.
A classroom is a microcosm of the universe, and a classroom is an excellent space to inculcate practices that can help students throughout their adult lives. As correctly pointed out by Henry Ford, Coming together is the beginning, keeping together is progress. Working together is success Students need to be made comfortable working in groups.
It is true that learning can be meaningful only when the process is attuned to the needs, goals and strengths of a learner. In fact, the focus of the present-day education system has shifted from a teacher-centric approach, where the teacher is the sole holder and diffuser of knowledge, to a more student-centric approach with each student being at the helm of their learning process. However, that in no way tries to promote an isolation of learners from their peers and their teachers. Students ought to understand early in their lives that individual goals fit in well within a larger set up, and can be furthered and enhanced through collaboration and engagement. Learners can critically understand their thoughts in close relation to the world of others to become practical problem solvers of tomorrow.
Thus, adopting a collaborative learning approach could help teachers inculcate life skills and critical thinking skills in learners.
Collaborative learning is an approach that involves two or more individuals coming together to understand a common learning concept and complete a common task. They bank upon each others resources, expertise and skills to fulfil the task. There is joint ownership of responsibilities and failures, if any. They work independently on different parameters and evaluate each others work to improve the quality of output. In a classroom ecosystem, a learner with a doubt could first approach their peers before going to teachers. Such an exercise is not to keep teachers away from students learning process, but to nudge learners to resort to their own collective wisdom as a community. This would encourage a student to understand and value their neighbours resourcefulness and give proper credit to them. Teachers could give challenging tasks to students in the classroom and ask students to work as a group. Students could see their tasks and thoughts getting challenged, and thus get an opportunity to think through the loopholes.
Benefits of Collective Learning:
Celebration of Diversity: A small group of students could be culturally and socially very diverse and thus, collaborative learning projects could open up the world to learners as they begin to gain a new perspective on life from their peers. Students also get to reflect upon their lives and values against those of their classmates and learn to acknowledge differences without being critical.
In a group enterprise, it is essential that students learn to work with all types of people and relate to their peers so that the project at hand benefits from their structured interaction.
Collaborative learning projects at an early age can help students boost their confidence and self-esteem, besides improving their sense of ownership at work. The task of presenting their ideas, defending them, and collaborating with others to expand their horizons also requires good communication skills, which also get a boost in these activities.
Establishing a culture of collaborative learning is not difficult. Neither is the process a resource-intensive one nor is assessing collaborative learning work difficult. A teacher needs willingness and an open mind to carry it out. Moreover, the availability of technology only makes collaboration easier. Students can connect with their peers on social media or through a learning management system. Among the many benefits of collective learning, the most important one is that it is able to fulfill the real purpose of education – nurturing responsible citizens who can collaborate with their fellow denizens to solve complex social, economic, and political problems.
This study will identify the dimension of Collaboration that most influence and contribute to student academic achievement.
2. What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem? (Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for a better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions)
آپکی کلاس یا سبجیکٹ میں بچوں کی دلچسپی، مسائل وغیرہ بتائیں۔ اپنا ٹاپک لکھیں۔ اپنے موضوع سے متعلق ٹیچرز کی رائے لکھیں کہ انہوں
نے اس مسئلے پر کیا کام کیا. اس کے حل کے لیے کوئی کوشش کی اور آپ کے لئے کیا تجاویز پیش کیںسپروائزر نے کیا مشورہ دیا
Discussion with colleagues/friends/supervisor:
Since I began my teaching practice, I have been using as many creative tasks as possible, not only strictly to teach students. In my action research project, I am therefore going to explore the Developing collaboration through co curricular activities among students of grade 4th in the Classroom on student’s academic performance. I discussed with my
colleagues/friends/supervisor for better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions.
Discussion with college:
My colleague pointed out that When thinking of a traditional classroom, you probably envision one teacher working alone with a group of students. While educators often work alone in the classroom, they do not — and should not — operate independently. Throughout my career, I’ve always found that the best way to improve an educational experience is to work together.
Discussion with Superior :
my supervisor said that It may seem like a no brainer, but a true brainstorm is not possible without collaboration. Collaboration provides a safety net; it helps you catapult your thinking and develop ideas that may seem crazy at first. Working with a small group of trusted teachers gave me the opportunity to turn what I thought was a silly idea at the time into a unique and creative lesson plan. When it was time for my class to study, I had the idea to have my students rewrite Shakespeare into different time periods that we had already studied. I was hesitant to bring this idea to a large group — it seemed so out there! But after developing the idea with my peers, I had a new and creative lesson plan that my students would love. Peer-to-peer collaboration can turn a small idea into the seeds for something fabulous.
Discussion with friends:
One of my friend said that the collaboration shouldn’t end among the teachers — it should be used during the school day among students, as well! Plan activities that give students the opportunity to work and collaborate together to learn and grow from each other. Collaborative learning has been shown to not only develop higher-level thinking skills in students, but boost their confidence and self-esteem as well. Group projects can maximize educational experience by demonstrating the material, while improving social and interpersonal skills. Students learn how to work with various types of learners and develop their leadership skills. When we work together, we create a better learning experience. Teacher collaboration positively impacts student achievement, and allows us as educators to explore new territory.
Discussion with Teachers:
As indicated by my friend Shahzad Ahmed Abbasi that the beauty of collaboration is not only the ability to tap into various perspectives and ideas, but also to share responsibility for our students’ learning. The more people invested in a student’s education, the better the chance that student has to be successful.
So, why is it that effective collaboration among teachers is not happening in any formalized or regular way despite the obvious benefits? It could be that some educators are unaware of the myriad benefits, or simply haven’t put the time or effort into the collaboration process.
According to me today, we observe a huge growth in classroom technology, and with it, the introduction of new learning methodologies. One example, that edtech encourages, is collaborative learning.
The best learning happens when children are actively involved in a project. Collaborative learning is an approach that encourages students to create groups and work together to solve a given problem. There are several benefits learners get when working in a group setting, which we explore next:
Developing social skills
Collaborative learning makes students with different backgrounds, race, or up bringing, to work together. They come together in a setting that maybe would not be possible if it were not for collaborative learning. In order to solve a project’s given problem, children need to communicate. They are able to hear different opinions and learn more about different cultures. The collaborative learning methodology is ideal for children that have difficulties in a social setting.
Learn from peers
Generally, people have different skills, passions, and knowledge. In a small collaborative group, when a question is raised, different students can have different answers and children can learn new things from one another, but also understand different perspectives.
In order to achieve a goal, students need to work together. They can work together without trusting each other, but for effective collaboration and to reach a common goal, they need to learn to trust each other.
Engage in learning
In a small group setting, each student has the opportunity to express her or his ideas. Being able to do so, and being heard can give the feeling of importance and value. The learning experience becomes more fun, and students are eager to learn more.
As students work as a team, they also receive more support, therefore gain confidence. Collaborative learning can help shy students express themselves more.
3. What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)? (Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem)
اپنے ٹاپک سے متعلق انٹرنیٹ پر آرٹیکل اور تھیسس تلاش کریں اور ان میں سے مختلف سکالرز کے کام کو منتخب کریں جو آپ کے ٹاپک
سے ملتے ہیں. اور ان کے فقروں میں ایک دو الفاظ بدل کر لکھیں. ساتھ ریفرنس لازمی لکھیں. یہاں صرف سکالر کا نام اور سال
Collaborative learning (CL) can be defined as a set of teaching and learning strategies promoting student collaboration in small groups (two to five students) in order to optimise their own and each other’s learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). To achieve this purpose, teachers have tried to organise different types of collaborative activities in their classroom teaching. In this paper, we report on teacher and student perceived features of collaborative activities that teachers have implemented to foster student collaboration. Over the last decades, research has demonstrated that CL can promote academic and social educational outcomes (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 2007; Slavin, 1996). However, research also shows that the implementation of CL is not always adequate in daily classroom practice. For example, even though teachers organise different types of student groupings (e.g. heterogeneous or homogeneous according to ability or gender), they do not always structure these group interactions to foster effective collaboration (Baker & Clark, 2010; Blatchford, Kutnick, Baines, & Galton, 2003). When examining the effectiveness of CL, researchers have noted challenges that students experience such as unequal individual participation in group tasks (e.g. Freeman & Greenacre, 2010; Janssen, Erkens, Kanselaar, & Jaspers, 2007), and students’ lack of communicative and collaborative skills (e.g. Li & Campbell, 2008; Pauli, Mohiyeddini, Bray, Michie, & Street, 2008). Similarly, teachers also encounter challenges while organizing collaborative activities, such as designing appropriate group tasks, composing groups, managing class time (Gillies & Boyle, 2010), and enhancing and monitoring productive collaboration (Hämäläinen & Vähäsantanen, 2011; Van Leeuwen, Janssen, Erkens, & Brekelmans, 2013).
Studies on the application of CL until now have investigated challenges perceived by only one actor, either teachers (e.g. Gillies & Boyle, 2010) or students (e.g. Popov et al., 2012). By focusing solely on teachers or students, the underlying antecedents of problems that teachers and students encounter during CL and the consequences of these problems have not been explored comprehensively. For example, understanding the commonly mentioned problem of free-riding (Dommeyer, 2007; Popov et al., 2012) requires investigating decisions teachers make while constructing collaborative tasks (e.g. deciding to incorporate individual accountability and positive interdependence or not; cf. Roseth, Johnson, & Johnson, 2008) and how these decisions subsequently affect students’ perceptions of the collaborative task and the collaborative behaviour this elicits (e.g. deciding to participate less than other group members because the task is not perceived to be a true group task that requires the input of all group members; cf. Janssen et al., 2007). Hence, our study extends previous work in two ways. First, we investigate multiple obstacles that affect the collaborative process perceived by both students and teachers. Previous studies focused either on one obstacle instead of multiple (e.g. Freeman & Greenacre, 2010; Ross, 2008), or investigated obstacles only from the perception of either the teachers (e.g. Abrami, Poulsen, & Chambers, 2004) or the students (e.g. Chiriac & Granström, 2012). Second, we explore possible antecedents that might help on explaining the identified obstacles. This is important because understanding possible causes of ineffective collaboration can help teachers to promote more successful and enjoyable CL experiences.
Problems students encounter when collaborating in groups
Research has shown that students encounter several problems during collaboration (Janssen et al., 2007; Kreijns, Kirschner, & Jochems, 2003). In this section, we exemplify students’ lack of collaborative skills as one of the common problems reported in the CL literature at various levels of education. Barron (2003), investigating the collaborative interactions of primary school children, found low-quality coordination among group members when they participated in problem-solving tasks. Her study showed that group members did not pay attention to others’ opinions, interrupted them, and rejected alternative suggestions without justification. These inappropriate behaviours inhibited group functioning and individual learning. Furthermore, Ross (2008) noted that the quality of students’ explanations in group interaction in primary and secondary classrooms is often below a level that enables shared knowledge construction. Additionally, help-seekers may be unable to formulate effective requests for help. As a result, both help-givers and help-seekers may be unable to collaborate effectively. Ross (2008) also indicated the quality of group discussions as a frequent problem for most primary and secondary school students. In the higher educational context, Popov et al. (2012) showed that communication problems, caused by a lack of collaborative skills, may inhibit first-year students in their master’s programme from engaging in group work and contributing to group outcomes. Taken together, these studies suggest that lack of collaborative skills may be one of the antecedents of the collaborative problems students often experience during CL (Gillies, 2006; Webb, 2009). Further research is, however, needed to uncover whether lack of collaborative skills is the only or the most important antecedent to students’ collaborative problems.
Problems teachers encounter when applying collaborative learning
Earlier studies (Chiriac & Granström, 2012; Hämäläinen & Vähäsantanen, 2011) have identified several problems that teachers encounter when applying CL in the classroom. We explain two problems affecting CL effectiveness: organisation of collaborative activities, and assessment of learning.
First, teachers often face challenges while structuring collaborative activities such as monitoring students’ on-task behaviour, managing group-work time, providing relevant materials, assigning individual roles, and establishing teamwork beliefs and behaviours (Gillies & Boyle, 2010). A study by Ruys, Van Keer, and Aelterman (2012), which analysed preparation of collaborative activities of pre-service teachers, revealed insufficient attention of teachers to organising collaborative work such as determining group norms and facilitating activities. Furthermore, research demonstrated that a large number of primary and secondary school teachers often place students in groups and let them work together without preparing students to perform collaborative activities productively (Blatchford et al., 2003).
Second, teachers frequently find it difficult to assess students’ performance and achievements as they implement CL in classrooms at all levels of education (Strijbos, 2011). For example, teachers at some primary and secondary schools showed uncertainty and ambiguity about what and how to assess (Frykedal & Chiriac, 2011). Also, a study by Chiriac and Granström (2012) reported that the criteria or rules for assessment lacked transparency and concreteness. Furthermore, the lack of assessment tools to measure collaborative performance of every group member may cause student disappointment about the transparency and evenness of the assessment (Strom & Strom, 2011).
Although previous studies highlighted several problems teachers encounter when applying CL, these studies have insufficiently elucidated the underlying causes or antecedents of these problems (e.g. Gillies & Boyle, 2010; Lopata, Miller, & Miller, 2003). Furthermore, the problems that teachers encounter will likely also affect collaborating students. This relationship between problems experienced by teachers and by students is, however, rarely addressed during previous research. If teachers, for example, are unsure about how to monitor students’ group discussions, and cannot adequately intervene when necessary or model appropriate collaborative behaviour, this will probably affect the quality of the collaborative process as experienced by students (Van De Pol, Volman, & Beishuizen, 2011; Van Leeuwen et al., 2013; Webb, 2009).
4. What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature. (What are the key terms in your topic or study? what do you mean by these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project?)
اس میں آپ نے اپنے ریسرچ پروجیکٹ میں استعمال ہونے والے اہم نکات جن کو آپ نے کلاس میں ٹیسٹ کیا یا مشاہدہ ان کی
تعریف اور تفصیل لکھنی ہے مثلاً کانفیڈنس میں موٹیویشن، پرائز، ایررز مسٹیکس میں پازیٹو فیڈ بیک، موٹیویشن، تعریف، ریڈنگ میں ویری
ایبل جو ٹیسٹ کیے جاتے ہیں وہ
Comprehension, skimming, scanning, fluency
وغیرہ ہیں. ان کی تعریفیں اور مثالیں دینی چاہئے. رائٹنگ میں
وغیرہ اور سپیکنگ میں
Fluency, Accent, Pronunciation, Vocabulary
وغیرہ ہو سکتے ہیں. آپ انٹرنیٹ سے بھی تلاش کر سکتے ہیں مثلاً گوگل پر لکھیں
Variables for testing reading skills etc
Variables for improvement of confidence / self-esteem
Key Terms in the Project/Major variables:
A word that serves as a key, as to the meaning of another word, a sentence, passage, or the like. The key concept is usually the main idea in the essay question. To provide the readers a better understanding of the frequently used terms in the study, the following terms are defined operationally:
Collaborative learning is broadly defined as “a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together,” and more specifically as joint problem solving (Dillenbourg, 1999, p. 1). Roschelle and Teasley define collaboration more specifically as “mutual engagement of participants in a coordinated effort to solve a problem together,” (as cited in Dillenbourg et al., 1996, p. 2).
Motivation is the word derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behavior can be – desire for money & Success.
Group activities or Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a group to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who work together towards a common goal.
Co-curricular activities are those activities which fall outside the regular academic curriculum. These activities are compulsory in some institutions while in others it’s voluntary. Where these are compulsory all school students must participate them alongside the standard study curriculum.
5. What did you want to achieve in this research project? (Objective/purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project)
اس میں سٹوڈنٹس اور ٹیچرز کے بارے میں لکھیں کیونکہ یہی آپ کی ریسرچ کے شرکاء ہیں سٹوڈنٹس کے ایج گروپ، ان کی تعلیمی
حالت، مسائل، ان کی آبزرویشن اور کوئسچنیئر یا ٹیسٹ وغیرہ میں کارکردگی کے بارے میں بتائیں اور ان کا رویہ کیا تھا۔ ٹیچرز کا رویہ،
Research problems and research objectives basically have the same meaning. Therefore, very often research problems are stated in the same way as the research objectives. This indicates the important role of research problems and research objectives in research activities. However, research objectives should be stated differently from the research problems, as the research problems are stated as questions to be answered by the researchers, while the objectives are stated as the goal of research to be achieved by the researchers. Research objectives are more focused than research problems.
Objective of the Study:
Main objective of the Study was to Developing collaboration through co curricular activities among students of grade 4th.
- Purpose of the study
- Explore how researchers have defined collaboration;
- Investigate how collaboration skills develop;
- Learn how teachers can encourage development of collaboration skills in their students;
- Review best practices in assessing collaboration skills.
- To identify teachers’ roles in the development of collaborative skills in their students
- To identify the level of collaborative skills among school students.
- To identify students academic achievement among school students through collaboration.
Collaboration in education is a very broad topic, and many questions could have been asked of teachers and students to gather information for this study. The researcher narrowed down the topic by focusing on teachers and students’ motivation, grades, attendance, and attitude. As a result, this study considered the following research questions:
- Collaboration has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts r u agree?
- Collaboration influences the students learning and academic achievement r u agree?
- Does students learn more when Teachers are actively involved in learning activities?
- Is Teacher responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics (e.g., socio-economic status, ethnicity, biological risk factors)?
- What obstacles to effective collaboration do teachers and students perceive during the process of CL?
- What antecedents can explain the obstacles perceived by teachers and students?
- What are the goals of Collaborative learning ?
- How are students prepared for collaboration?
- How do students work together in their groups?
- Do you have any problems during the process of CL? If yes, what are they?
6. Who were the participants in your project? (Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused on this project e.g. the early-grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class VIII who did not have good communication skills)
اس میں جو ٹولز آپ نے ڈیٹا اکٹھا کرنے کے لیے استعمال کیا اس کے حوالے سے لکھیں. مثال کے طور پر ٹیسٹ، آبزرویشن، کوئسچنیئر
وغیرہ. ان کے فوائد اور سٹوڈنٹس کی کارکردگی اوران ٹولز کے استعمال میں مشکلات کے حوالے سے لکھیں نتائج اس میں نہیں لکھنے
In order to understand the complexities of much validity, researchers’ participation in and observation of the phenomenon should be the appropriate approach for more authentic understanding and explanation of the qualitative data. The targeted population was children enrolled in (4th) level of city Name. However, in this questionnaire, forty (40) children, taking a related course, were selected in school Name located in City Name as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included children of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the children in (4th) level. The peer reading strategies was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding written skills identification and improvement for (4th) children. This curriculum purported to explain the following topic. Developing collaboration through co curricular activities among students of grade 4th.
7. How did you try to solve the problem? (Narrate the process step-wise. The procedure of intervention and data collection)
شروع میں اپنے ٹاپک کے انتخاب، مقاصد، ٹیچرز کی رائے، پارٹیسیپینٹ، ٹیسٹ یا کوئسچنیئر یا آبزرویشن وغیرہ اور سٹوڈنٹس کو درپیش مسائل
کے حل کے حوالے سے لکھیں
The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the Developing collaboration through co curricular activities among students of grade 4th. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.
The entire peer learning from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of School Name. It was quite convenient for the researcher, being a resident of District Name to accumulate quality data from chosen city and school. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population. The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample. The students of School Name were selected for this class based action research.
An action research is considered „ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and area governing body. Permission was sought from area peoples. The rights of the participants (elementary level children) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.
8. What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed? (For example observation, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test, etc.)
ڈیٹا اکٹھا کرنے کے لیے کس قسم کا انسٹرومنٹ استعمال کیا گیا؟ مثال کے طور پر مشاہدہ، درجہ بندی کا پیمانہ، انٹرویو، طالب علم کا کام
پورٹ فولیو، ٹیسٹ وغیرہ
Data used to evaluate the instruction strategies was collected through formative assessment, observation and summative assessment. The students of The School Name were selected for this class based action research. Each strategy received a one unit time frame, which generally worked out to a two week period. The first day of each unit a complete chapter test was be administered. The score of these assessments was converted to a percentage mean for the whole class and compared on an individual basis with mid-chapter assessment scores and the chapter summative assessment scores. Unit formative assessments consisted of several lesson quizzes given the day after formal instruction on the quiz content had been completed and only after a session of homework correction and teaching. Copies of all assessments were kept to allow for comparison among content areas as determined by the lesson designation printed in each section of each assessment. These were used to determine any changes in performance as related to each lesson area. For example, I observe a child misbehaves in a classroom; some other students might give them extra attention or even hone the student. Children quickly learn that by acting out, they can gain attention from the teacher or even acquire objects that they want. In this case, a better solution would be to use honesty when the child is displaying good behavior. Instead of rewarding the misbehavior, the teachers would want to wait until the child is behaving well and then reward that good behavior with praise and treats. Study Results To compare the two strategies it was necessary to find a way to measure the efficacy of each strategy for the class as a whole. The researcher chose to compare growth in scores from the pretest to the final test. A mean of this set of differences was calculated for each strategy as was the standard deviation for each. The justification for comparing the two strategies in this manner was that this measure quantified the growth students made during each strategy and provided a clear picture of how consistently this growth was seen over the population (as shown by the standard deviation).
9. What were the findings and conclusion? (Provide instruments and analysis as an appendix)
اس میں شروع میں انسٹرومنٹ یعنی آبزرویشن اور کوئسچنیئر کے نتائج لکھیں کہ کتنے سٹوڈنٹس اور ٹیچرز کے جوابات کیسے تھے اور آپ نے
کیا نتیجہ نکالا. پھر متعلقہ سب تھیم یعنی ریڈنگ یا رائٹنگ یا سپیکنگ سکلز کے حوالے سے تجاویز دیں کہ طلباء کیسے بہتر کر سکتے ہیں اور
سوسائٹی کو کیا فائدہ ہوگا
Findings and Discussions
I have used an observation method to get students’ responses towards the Developing collaboration through co curricular activities among students of grade 4th. The results are shown below. Total students in this observation were 40 which have serious problem of lack of Communication. I have selected only those students in this research who have lack of collaboration in class. In this observation i used following statements to get data according to research objectives.
1.Often 2. Sometimes 3. Never
|1||Collaboration has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts r u agree?||65%||0||35%|
|2||Collaboration influences the students learning and academic achievement r u agree?||55%||35%||10%|
|3||Does students learn more when Teachers are actively involved in learning activities?||50%||40%||10%|
|4||Is Teacher responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics (e.g., socio-economic status, ethnicity, biological risk factors)?
|5||What obstacles to effective collaboration do teachers and students perceive during the process of CL?||60%||30%||10%|
|6||What antecedents can explain the obstacles perceived by teachers and students?||90%||5%||5%|
|7||What are the goals of Collaborative Learning ?||80%||10%||10%|
|8||How are students prepared for collaboration?||90%||0%||10%|
|9||How do students work together in their groups?||85%||5%||10%|
|10||Do you have any problems during the process of CL? If yes, what are they?||80%||10%||10%|
- 65% of the students admitted that The collaboration has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts.
- 55% of the students admitted that collaboration influence the students learning and academic achievement.
- More than half 50% of the students admitted that students learn more when teachers are actively involved in learning activities with students.
- 55% students admitted that increases in teacher responsiveness behaviours result in increases in young children’s collaborative skills and academic achievements.
- 60 % students admitted that the collaborative interactions of elementary school children, found low-quality coordination among group members when they participated in problem-solving tasks. Her study showed that group members did not pay attention to others’ opinions, interrupted them, and rejected alternative suggestions without justification. These inappropriate behaviours inhibited group functioning and individual learning. Furthermore, noted that the quality of students’ explanations in group interaction in primary and secondary classrooms is often below a level that enables shared knowledge construction.
- 90 % participants said that Previous studies identified common problems perceived by either teachers or students, but an integrated understanding of the obstacles to effective CL is lacking. Therefore, potential causes of these problems may have been overlooked.
- According to 80 % participants Research shows that educational experiences that are active, social, contextual, engaging, and student-owned lead to deeper learning. The benefits of collaborative learning include:
- oral communication, self-management, and leadership skills.
- Promotion of student-faculty interaction.
- Increase in student retention, self-esteem, and responsibility.
- Exposure to and an increase in understanding of diverse perspectives.
- Preparation for real life social and employment situations.
- Preparationhe futurework environment by allowing students to learn from each other and solve problems in different ways. The teacher acts as a lead learner instead by asking questions that will provoke answers that will change his mind.
- 85% Students replied that there are many instructional strategies that involve students working together to solve a problem, including inquiry-based learning, authentic learning, and discovery learning. While they each have their own unique characteristics, they fundamentally involve:
- with a problem.
- Providing some structure or guidance toward solving the problem. Note however, that they are all student-centered activities in which the instructor may have a very minimal role.
- Reaching a final outcome or solution.
According to 80% participants Problems of collaborative learning
People learn at different speeds
People do tend to learn at different speeds, which is why group work can sometimes take longer than individual learning. However, by providing the opportunity for group learning, someone within the group may have the opportunity to explain something to another student that a teacher or lecturer has struggled to explain to the same student.
Someone may be in charge of the group
In group situations the best case scenario is that no one is in charge and everyone works together to complete the task. In some groups it may be the case that someone decides to be in charge or become the leader of the group, which can cause group tension. Teachers and lecturers can stop students being put in charge of groups by stating it at the start of the task and by encouraging other people in the group to get involved.
Some groups may struggle if they don’t have group work skills
If people have never worked in groups before, they won’t have the skills to work together. Teachers and lecturers should help initially by explaining the task and the aims of the group work required. This should help spark the conversation on the required task.
Social loafing/ introverts may struggle
Social loafing is when someone in group working situations puts in less effort than the rest of the team. This can often happen when there are people who are in charge (of the group) that they don’t get on well with or the people don’t get on well within the group. Introverts can also struggle in groups to get their voice heard. Teachers or lecturers are told to put people that are introverts or tend to be social loafers in groups they will work well in, but also encourage them along the way.
Based on social psychological perspective, the study contributes with research on inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supported and impeded these transactions. For the analysis of the inclusive processes, we assumed, with the support of Black-Hawkins (2010, 2013) framework, that participation and inclusiveness were mutually dependent elements, requiring learning to be active and collaborative. Collaboration, in turn, is when students actively work together and with the teacher, shifting the nature of authority to the group (Bruffe, 1993).
Working structure and different aspects in their group task are examples of content in the discussions that indicate positive interdependence between the students (Johnson & Johnson, 2002, 2013). If the students perceive positive interdependence, it will give the group increased opportunities for developing inclusive and collaborative processes. Furthermore, the investigative and analytical parts of the discussions on the task are examples of students’ promotive interactions, where they show willingness to throw in their lot with their peers (Johnson & Johnson, 2002, 2013). Giving feedback and asking for and giving help on both individual and group joint work on the task are examples of how the students take individual accountability (Johnson & Johnson, 2002, 2013). Additionally, to give feedback directed at group members’ participation in the group work is also an example of students’ accountability. Positive interdependence, promotive interactions and individual accountability are three necessary elements to maximize the collaborative potential of groups, according to Social Interdependence Theory. To implement the three elements into group work requires active participation from the students. The elements will give arguments that there is, according to Black-Hawkins (2010, 2013) framework, examples of inclusive processes we have witnessed in the groups.
We have observed the balance of authority by attending to both student-student and teacher student interactions. Our focus has been on how the teacher works on equity and “allows” the groups to collaborate constructively (Davidson & Major, 2014), which Webb et al. (2013) showed could be promoted through teachers’ support of students’ communication. A recurring event was when the teacher advised a student to ask a member of the group for help or assistance and/or reminded the groups to take responsibility for their work. The teacher communicated this generally or more prescriptively. Precise communication provided the students with clear feedback, granting them the authority to collaborate in their groups. Other observed teacher responses confirmed student responses rather than questioning (Davidson & Major, 2014) the students’ queries about the task, hence, giving the students fewer opportunities to gain authority and accountability for the task (Johnson & Johnson, 2002, 2013). Balancing authority is an interactive process, where the students need to collaborate actively rather than choosing the option of asking the teacher for help instead of solving a problem themselves. Perhaps unsurprisingly, both types of teacher behaviours were evident in this classroom. Consequently, the results verify that the teacher both supported and impeded the inclusive processes inherent in delegating authority to the groups. According to Cohen (1994), learning to delegate authority to groups, allowing students to work more independently, is difficult; however, the greatest learning gains are made, according to Cohen (1994), when teachers successfully undertake this process. Balancing authority in this context is an interactive classroom process, where it is within the teacher’s complex facilitative role to carry out the delegation of authority and promote effective interaction among group members. Additionally, the students in this study have possibilities in the group work, with Booth’s (2002) definitions, to learn and collaborate in groups. This allows the students to have the possibilities to be part of inclusive processes.
Collaboration is an educational mode that considers both students’ academic and social outcomes. This is in line with the aim of inclusion, thus increasing each student’s social and pedagogical participation. In this study, we have elucidated inclusive processes manifested in students’ collaborations when working in groups and the teacher’s support and impeding of these processes. Students’ active participation in the discussions around working structure and the task, as well as the investigative and analytical parts of the discussions, promotes their inclusive and collaborative processes. Additionally, teachers’ more defined feedback and questioning of the students’ queries about the task give the students opportunities to be accountable, both at the individual and group level, thereby enabling them to take greater responsibility for the group’s collective work. However, when the teacher takes the traditional authoritative role of being the arbiter of difficulties, it impedes students’ opportunities to, in collaboration, analyse and find their own solutions of their queries. A conclusion from the study is that core work for teachers resides in the delegation of authority to make it possible for the students to work independently and become more accountable for their own learning and socialization. Additionally, to develop conditions that support mutually respectful interactions seems to be another essential aspect of actualizing inclusion in group work processes.
10. Summary of the Project (What and how was the research conducted – main objective, process, and findings)
سوال یہ ہے کہ آپ نے ریسرچ کیسے کی. پورا طریقہ کار لکھیں اور اختتام پر جو آپ کو معلومات حاصل ہوئیں وہ لکھیں ٹاپک سلیکشن سے
لے کر آخر میں کیا نتیجہ سامنے آیا وہ لکھیں اس میں ٹاپک کے انتخاب اور جیسے آپ نے اسے مکمل کیا وہ لکھیں مثلاً انسٹرومنٹ یا ٹولز کا
استعمال مثلاً مشاہد
Research studies are being conducted in order to provide results that will help with social, professional and the purpose of this action research will be a common knowledge that when teachers are seen upholding Home tasks for children’s, it creates a high level of children confidence and trust in the learning process to empower students with collaborative skills.
The main purpose of this study was to Developing collaboration through co curricular activities among students of grade 4th in School Name on academic achievement.
Collaboration is the “mutual engagement of participants in a coordinated effort to solve a problem together.” Collaborative interactions are characterized by shared goals, symmetry of structure, and a high degree of negotiation, interactivity, and interdependence. Interactions producing elaborated explanations are particularly valuable for improving student learning. Nonresponsive feedback, on the other hand, can be detrimental to student learning in collaborative situations. Collaboration can have powerful effects on student learning, particularly for low-achieving students. However, a number of factors may moderate the impact of collaboration on student learning, including student characteristics, group composition, and task characteristics. Although historical frameworks offer some guidance as to when and how children acquire and develop collaboration skills, there is scant empirical evidence to support such predictions. However, because many researchers appear to believe children can be taught to collaborate, they urge educators to provide explicit instruction that encourages development of skills such as coordination, communication, conflict resolution, decision-making, problem-solving, and negotiation. Such training should also emphasize desirable qualities of interaction, such as providing elaborated explanations, asking direct and specific questions, and responding appropriately to the requests of others. Teachers should structure tasks in ways that will support the goals of collaboration, specify “ground rules” for interaction, and regulate such interactions. There are a number of challenges in using group-based tasks to assess collaboration. Several suggestions for assessing collaboration skills are made.
There are many new research avenues that need to be explored and questions addressed in recent studies that require further examination.
Purpose of the study
- Explore how researchers have defined collaboration;
- Investigate how collaboration skills develop;
- Learn how teachers can encourage development of collaboration skills in their students;
- Review best practices in assessing collaboration skills.
- To identify teachers’ roles in the development of collaborative skills in their students
- To identify the level of collaborative skills among school students.
- To identify students academic achievement among school students through collaboration.
Process of Data collection
I used action research method for existing research. Observation, focus group interviews, questionnaires and field notes by me to collect the data. The interviews used in this study were semi-structured. I conducted direct interview of students during their free time. I also used mobile phone for recording data. The head teacher introduced me to the class teacher. I assured that the study is the sole purpose of writing a research project and that the data collected would be treated with utmost. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (IBM SPSS Statistics 20) program was used for data screening, data transformations and analysis. Study identified a significant, causal, and reciprocal relationship between classroom effective environment and students learning.
This study investigated obstacles and antecedents to the effectiveness of CL from both teachers’ and students’ point of view in order to better understand the process of CL. We found four main obstacles to the effectiveness of CL, namely students’ lack of collaborative skills, free-riding, competence status, and friendship. The first obstacle confirms findings of prior research showing that the lack of interpersonal and teamwork skills may not only impede group interaction but may also stifle individual and collaborative learning. When students are unskilled in collaboration, they are unable to contribute fully to the assigned tasks. This may lead to the second obstacle, free-riding, which has been extensively discussed in CL literature. The third obstacle, competence status, confirms the finding showing that competence status suppresses collective learning in such a way that low-status students are inhibited in participating actively and are often underestimated, whereas high-status peers have more chances to contribute and tend to ignore the efforts of low-status members. Finally, friendship groups may not always function effectively because friends tend to socialize more than to focus on group tasks. Furthermore, one may forget their individual responsibility without being criticised by other group members. This implies that individuals, especially in Asian countries, may have to suppress their personal feelings or alternative viewpoints so as not to affect interactions within a group negatively. This cultural feature may also explain the tendency to rate peers very high in the peer evaluation observed in our study.
We have identified three interrelated antecedents that help explain the identified obstacles. Central to the antecedents is the strong focus of the teachers on the cognitive aspects of CL, which led the participating teachers to neglect the collaborative aspects of CL. These antecedents were demonstrated in the ways teachers set CL goals, provided instruction for collaborative skills, and assessed student collaboration. These findings of our study seem to be consistent with pleas for teacher competencies aimed at fostering the quality of student collaboration such as defining learning goals, instructing beneficial student behaviours, monitoring, supporting, consolidating and evaluating student interaction. A lack of teacher competencies for implementing CL may seriously and negatively impact student learning in groups because students may aim only to achieve individual academic learning and neglect the importance of social interaction during collaboration.
Our findings seem to imply that there are reciprocal interactions between these three antecedents. The low attention for collaborative goals of CL may cause teachers to ignore training students in collaborative skills and then teachers might not want to or be unable to assess the collaborative process because of a lack of training.
11. How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned? (self-reflection)
آپ اس تحقیق کے بارے میں کیسا محسوس کرتے ہیں؟ آپ نے کیا سیکھا ہے؟
In the earlier I was bit confused when I went to area for research. I was hesitated to start my work in the area but when I arranged meeting with teacher then suddenly this hesitation went away. The staff of the area told me that we will help you and guide you whenever you need. After meeting with parents and their positive response I was satisfied and ready to do it. After this practice I feel that it was great experience of my life because I experienced a lot of new things. I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks. I m feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Teacher and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. This practice also improved my writing skills too. I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grimmer. My vocabulary has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other. The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect. Since mindfulness is about being present in the moment and noticing all the sensations and emotions in your mind and life, one thing you can do is ask yourself where in your mind you feel your emotions. I had mixed feelings with research. I was bit nervous and somewhat curious to learn action research. I attend all of the meeting to reach 80% attendance to learn about how to do action research effectively. My experience regarding current research was informative. In this regard my respective supervisor helps me a lot.
12. What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
اس نے بطور استاد آپ کی پیشہ ورانہ صلاحیتوں میں کیا اضافہ کیا ہے؟
This research process teaches me a lot of professional skills.
After completing research, it felt more confident about the work. It felt motivated to solve classroom issues through action research. It added confidence not only in myself but in students and colleagues. As a confident person the researcher can now inspire others to be confident, and my confidence can help influence my students to be a better person.
At start, discussed my research objectives with colleagues and senior staff, the researcher conducted questionnaire from teachers of selected school. This developed my communication skills as well. Being able to communicate with not only my students but with parents and staff is an essential skill. Almost all of my day as a teacher is spent communicating with students and colleagues so it is crucial to be able to talk clear and concise in order to get my point across.
During research, it felt that there are a number of areas that still need to be studied to solve classroom issues and problems. Teaching is a lifelong learning process. It’s now learnt that the world is always changing, along with the curriculum and educational technology, so it’s up to me, the teacher, to keep up with it. Teaching method is very important to motivate students and to develop their interest toward subject. Many new things were learnt in this research and now the researcher is willing to try new things, from new educational apps to teaching skills and electronic devices. The researcher learnt that being innovative means not only trying new things, but questioning my students, making real-world connections and cultivating a creative mindset. It’s getting my students to take risks and having students learn to collaborate.
The last but most important thing that learnt in whole research work is commitment. A teacher needs to always be engaged in their profession. The students need to see that their teacher is present and dedicated to being there for them.
13. List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). Examples of formats are available on websites.
ان ریفرنسز کو ترتیب سے نمبر کے ساتھ حروف-تہجی کی ترتیب میں لکھیں کم از کم پندرہ سکالرز کے ریفرنس دیں اپنے موضوع سے متعلق
سکالرز کے کام میں سے ایک ایک پیراگراف لیں اور پیرا کے شروع یا اختتام پر ریفرنس لکھیں
- Janssen, J., Erkens, G., Kirschner, P. A., & Kanselaar, G. (2009). Influence of group member familiarity on online collaborative learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 161–170.
- Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Making cooperative learning work. Theory Into Practice, 38, 67–73.
- Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The state of cooperative learning in postsecondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 15–29.
- Kaendler, C., Wiedmann, M., Rummel, N., Spada, H., Rev, E. P., Kaendler, C., … Rummel, N. (2014). Teacher competencies for the implementation of collaborative learning in the classroom: A framework and research review. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 505–536.
- Koh, C., Tan, O. S., Wang, C. K. J., Ee, J., & Liu, W. C. (2007). Perceptions of low ability students on group project work and cooperative learning. Asia Pacific Education Review, 8, 89–99.
- Koutrouba, K., Kariotaki, M., & Christopoulos, I. (2012). Secondary education students’ preferences regarding their participation in group work: The case of Greece. Improving Schools, 15, 245–259.
- Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A., & Jochems, W. (2003). Identifying the pitfalls for social interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: A review of the research. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 335–353.
- Kutnick, P., Sebba, J., Blatchford, P., Galton, M., Thorp, J., MacIntyre, H., & Berdondini, L. (2005). The effects of pupil grouping: Literature review (Research Report 688). Nottingham: DfES Publications.
- Li, M., & Campbell, J. (2008). Asian students’ perceptions of group work and group assignments in a New Zealand tertiary institution. Intercultural Education, 19, 203–216.
- Aronson, E. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Oxford: Sage Publication. Baines, E., Blatchford, P., & Chowne, A. (2007). Improving the effectiveness of collaborative group work in primary schools: Effects on science attainment. British Educational Research Journal, 33, 663–680.
- Black-Hawkins, K. (2010). The framework for participation: a research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 33(1), 21–40.
- Black-Hawkins, K. (2013). Researching inclusive classroom practices: The framework for participation. In L. Florian (ed.), The sage handbook of special education, (pp. 389–403). London: Sage Education.
- Booth, T. (1996). A perspective on inclusion from England. Cambridge Journal of Education, 26(1), 87-99.
- Booth, T. (2002). Inclusion and exclusion in the city: Concepts and contexts. In P. Potts & T. Booth, Inclusion in the city (pp. 1–14). London: Routledge.