PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING

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The role of the family context in the Regulation of emotions
The role of the family context in the Regulation of emotions

PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING

PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING

Theme: Children’s Socio Emotional Development

Sub-theme: (Mutual Cooperation)

Topic: PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING

1.Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.

(Give the background and rationale of the study)

Reason behind the selection of the topic: This action research was designed to Promoting conflict resolving skill in secondary school students through teaching forgiving. Although, the present topic has been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the students due to lack of confidence and teacher cooperation.This study is to gain awareness about Conflict resolving skill and students ‘conflict resolving skills.“.“ This study will help the teachers in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately lead to self-motivation among children regarding Mutual cooperation, children’s conflict resolving skills and increase the achievement level of the children as well.

PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING

The purpose of this study was to improve the ability of slow learners in the class. The objective of this study was to find out the reasons behind lack of conflict resolving skills regarding Conflict resolving skill and provide solution accordingly.

The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place”. Teacher provide the environment in which students mutually cooperate without hesitation. “Therefore,teachers should also know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help children to motivate them to participate in conflict resolving skills at school.”. Students does not perform mutually in the class on the base of following reasons are:

Lake of self-confidence:

Mostly students not have confidence about talking with teachers. They feel fear about talking with teachers. They do not discuss with others due to hesitation. Only Some students perform mutually in the class whose class monitors.

Problem in Home:

Some Parents quelled with another on the base of little things.  They made big issues on the base of little things so during this battle they do not focus on their children. Children of these types of parents feel complex in life. They are demotivated about everything. In this way they don’t perform mutually in the class.

PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING

Lack of motivation:

In some cases, your child’s conflict resolving skill problem may actually be a motivation problem. This lack of motivation can lead to a number issues in the classroom regarding conflict resolving skills.

2.What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

(Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions).

When I discuss the whole matter Promoting conflict resolving skill in secondary school students through teaching forgiving. Teachers gave different views regarding this.Teaching forgiveness is especially important to help reduce anger in children who have suffered injustice sufficient enough to compromise their emotional health. Forgiveness can also help students, now and later as adults, forge stable and meaningful relationships without anger causing discord and division. Mostly students do not perform mutually in the class and not clear out the concept due of lack of self-confidence. Because teacher gave more punishment to the students for any common mistake. It is the first responsibility of teachers to build self-confidence. So teachers must know their students what they want. Then deal them accordingly. Use examples freely that they can understand easily. Use a variety of children active teaching activities to gain interest of the children.Set realistic performance goals and help children achieve them by encouraging them to set their own reasonable goals. Teacher should give small study cases to students and ask them they identify the solution of these problems. Almost all the teachers and colleagues were in favor of the statement that the students having motivation are possessing good behavior regardingconflict resolving educational activities at school. Because motivation and behavior are very alternative. You can do anything just on the base of motivation. The researcher conducted this study which focused on the analytical questioning ability of students in the class through involvement in class activities that lead to self-confidence. It is better to motivate the students rather than punishing them. A student can perform any activity or task just on the base of motivation.

A teacher’s most important duty to build confidence in the personality of students because children give more importance to the words of teachers. Motivation ultimately enhances good behavior regarding conflict resolving skills and mutual cooperation. Work with teachers to motivate students at school though asking conflict resolving skills. If student, ask questions from teacher and teacher not respond with interest then students demotivate and may be not ask question again in the class. Workspace or resource requirements for their child’s school learning. Due dates for assignments so that they can provide reminders where necessary.Lots of praise is effective, says Amy. ‘Not just directly – I have also been putting through commendations for my students.’ If your school and in home has an awards system, keep using it – and even make it more short-term. Rather than termly commendations, consider weekly awards for positive contributions to class discussions, responding to feedback, etc., making sure to reward and praise things such as students’ effort or completion of a task rather than their attainment.

A bit of healthy competition can be great for boosting motivation, as well as teaching students the importance of learning from failures and losses. You could run small competitions in class or larger projects with a small prize, even if it’s a virtual gold star. Or rather than competing individually, split each class into teams (or houses if you have them) and give them points for completing tasks, contributing to discussions, being positive, etc. –Teachers should keep individual activities in class to maintain self-confidence. Make sure you regularly engage with students individually. ‘Engaging with students by name really helps,’ says Amy. ‘During the lesson.

3.What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles/websites)?

(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem).

Teaching forgiveness is especially important to help reduce anger in children who have suffered injustice sufficient enough to compromise their emotional health. Forgiveness can also help students, now and later as adults, forge stable and meaningful relationships without anger causing discord and division

First, the low percentages of students who mutually cooperate and expressed opinions in class, which are similar to or worse than the percentages of high school students who did so, demonstrates that first-year university education does not give students enough opportunities to ask questions for better understanding or to express opinions to deepen their thinking. The Central Council for Education in 2012 emphasized the necessity of nurturing academic skills such as thinking critically and expressing opinions in higher education, and in response the institution where the survey was conducted launched a small-size seminar-type class called “Introduction to Academic Study” as a requirement for all first-year students. Unfortunately, however, this class does not seem to have been very effective in realizing the goals of enhancing students’ skills in asking questions and expressing opinions. According to a 2014 report by the National Institute for Education Policy Research in Japan, a survey found that 63.4% of 1,649 Japanese university students from 200 different academic departments never or seldom expressed opinions in class, and 71.9% responded that the current situation in their classes was appropriate. It is evident that many students in universities in Japan do not understand the importance of expressing themselves in class in order to deepen their thinking.

Second, quite a few students report that they don’t dare to think independently, as demonstrated by survey responses such as “I have no opinions or questions,” “It is not necessary to express opinions,” or “I can’t find any reason for expressing opinions.” It can be assumed that these students accept whatever is given by authorities, such as teachers and books, without thinking for themselves. Until recently it was commonly accepted by Japanese students that, as Davidson (1995) states, “unthinking acceptance of the ideas of one’s teachers and elders is considered a virtue” (p.41). However, as Paul (1993) notes, “in a world of accelerating change and complexity, a new form of thinking and learning is required, a form of thinking and learning that involves much more intellectual discipline and skills of self-evaluation than we have yet learned to accept” (p.v). The third finding is that although students do not ask questions or express opinions, it does not necessarily follow that students do not think for themselves. After analyzing the students’ responses, we can assume there are other reasons for refraining from asking questions or offering opinions in class, among them that (1) teachers do not allow enough time for students to express opinions, (2) students do not appreciate expressing themselves to teachers in class, and (3) students are afraid of losing face among peers in class. The first assumption, that teachers do not give time to express opinions in class, is clearly confirmed in student feedback: 20% of the students who responded that they never or seldom expressed opinions stated that there was not enough time or opportunity in class to offer opinions. We can assume that students did think and did have opinions but they were not allowed to express them in class. It seems that teachers continued to use a traditional teaching style and do not know how to manage the class to make students think autonomously. The second assumption that students do not appreciate talking to teachers in class, is inferred from the responses of 25% of the students who never or seldom asked questions in class. They reported that they solved problems by themselves or by asking their friends. Students did think and did have questions but hesitated to ask the teacher. The reasons for this are not clear from their responses, but they may have felt that teachers did not welcome their questions, teachers were not friendly, or teachers’ explanations were hard to understand. The third assumption, that students are afraid of losing face in class, is deduced from the reasons given by 50% of the students who never or seldom asked questions. The reasons included “I don’t ask questions because I am not confident,” “The classroom atmosphere is not comfortable for asking a question,” “I don’t feel like asking questions in class,” and “My question could disturb the class.” (Some of the responses may reflect a lack of friendliness from teachers, as noted above, but for many young people in Japan today relations with peers tend to be more important than those with teachers.) Probably because students had not been taught the importance of asking questions or expressing opinions, they behaved as they had been raised to behave in their family and at school. For them, expressing opinions and asking questions could cause “all involved to lose face, especially if superiors and subordinates are involved,” as FitzGerald (2003, p.136) states. He explains this as a trait of East Asian cultures.

Positive face or positive politeness is related to the desire for involvement and the need to be accepted as member of one’s group or society. One displays this positive politeness by accepting the point of view of others, agreeing with them and working to create common views of the world (p.26). Because in collectivist cultures the self is never free but is tied up in mutual role obligations, this face work is focused on giving support to others’ face while not bringing shame on one’s self or one’s group” (p.27)

By asking questions, we are saying to the person: I am curious; I want to know more; help me. This request shows respect for the other person. The questions exist to inform and provide direction for all who hear them. The point of your questions is that you need help to have a deeper understanding or appreciation of what is being said” (p.2).

Fourth, ordinary Japanese teachers seem to have difficulty teaching students to ask questions and voice opinions effectively in class. Some of the results of the survey explain this: (1) even after taking the “Introduction to Academic Study” class in their first semester, many students did not ask questions or express opinions more often than high school students did, and (2) many more students asked questions or expressed opinions in EFL classes than in other classes given by Japanese teachers. Some facts about the department where the survey was given may explain why: (1) out of 47 full-time instructors, four instructors, including Japanese and non-Japanese, received academic degrees from universities in English-speaking countries, where students are “asked to form their own opinion and defend them in front of classmates” (Samimy, 1993, p.7). All four of these instructors teach EFL. (2) Among 125 part-time and full-time instructors, eight are non-Japanese from western countries, and all of them teach EFL. These two facts and the students’ responses lead us to assume that teachers of EFL know how to encourage students to think and express themselves more effectively than the typical Japanese teacher, who has no experience of education in a western institution, where the academic culture reflects the global community.

According to Ichimura (2013), Japanese business annually requires 260,000 new workers who are able to work globally, which means that almost all newly graduating students have to be able to work with people from different cultures. We urgently need to train students to be globally competent. EFL teachers must take a leading role in teaching students to think independently, to ask questions, and to express themselves by including opportunities for these activities in class. Once students in EFL classes have learned the meaning and importance of asking questions and voicing opinions, they will be able to transfer these skills to activities in classes given in Japanese, thereby developing their ability to think deeply and critically.

Since the turn of the century the government and business leaders in Japan have been saying that we need to teach students to think, express themselves, and judge by themselves, because the world is changing rapidly and teaching knowledge alone does not give students the ability to succeed in this globalized community. The ability to “think,” however, did not receive much attention in Japan until 1998, when the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) released the new Course of Study (guidelines for all elementary and secondary schools), which emphasized the importance of activities with “thinking.” Unfortunately, according to the results of a survey conducted in 2014 (Okada, 2015), sixteen years after the 1998 Course of Study was issued, the introduction of thinking activities into classrooms had apparently done little to change the nature of teaching in high schools in Japan. In this situation, in order to nurture students to be successful in the twenty-first century, it is crucial and urgent for university teachers to teach students to think deeply and independently although they tend to pay more attention and spend more time on researching than teaching (The Nikkei, 2015, April 7, p.34). The author, an EFL (English as a foreign language) teacher in university in Tokyo, undertook a new survey to assess the role of thinking activities in higher education in Japan, with the aim of understanding whether these activities are successful in encouraging independent thinking in students. In this paper, the author will first review briefly how teaching has been practiced in Japan. She will then present the results of the recent survey on how often university students are engaged in thinking activities and how students feel about those activities. Finally, she will discuss what hinders Japanese students’ ability to think independently and express themselves, and suggest the role of EFL teachers in nurturing these skills.

4.What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature?

(what are the key terms in your topic or study? What do you mean of these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project)

Variables of the study:

Three variables included in this research. Two were independent variables and one was dependent variable. Students’Teacher forgiving and mutual cooperation are independent variables and student’s conflict resolving skill was dependent variable.

Teaching forgiveness:

Teaching forgiveness is especially important to help reduce anger in children who have suffered injustice sufficient enough to compromise their emotional health. Forgiveness can also help students, now and later as adults, forge stable and meaningful relationships without anger causing discord and division.

Mutual cooperation:

Mutual cooperation designed to assess your ability to consider a group of facts and rules, and, given those facts and rules, determine what could or must be true. You might then be asked to answer questions about the logical implications of the rules as they apply to the scenario.

Conflict resolving skills:

Conflict resolving skills is considered a soft skill (a personal strength) rather than a hard skill that’s learned through education or training. You can improve your conflict resolving skills by familiarizing yourself with common issues in your industry and learning from more experienced persons.

5.what did you want to achieve in this research project?

(Objective/ purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project)

  • Research Objectives

“The aim of this study is to analyze that “Promoting conflict resolving skill in secondary school students through teaching forgiving.” In order to achieve said aims, following objectives are designed:

  • “To analyze the relationship between teacher forgivingand students ‘conflict resolving skill”.
  • To analyze the relationship between Mutual cooperation” and conflict resolving skill.“
  • Research Questions

RQ1. What is the relationship between teacher forgiving and students ‘conflict resolving skill.

RQ2.What is the relationship between Mutual cooperation” and conflict resolving skill. “

6.Who were the participants in your project?

(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g. the early grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class 8 who did not have good communication skills)

Population

The population of the study comprised girls studying at Govt Girls High School village Herchowas situated in district of Astore, who have lack in conflict resolving skill due to lack of teacher forgiving.

Sample

A total of “30” students and 2 teachers were taken as a sample of the study. Hercho villagewas taken as Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, total sample size was 32 respondents including teachers and students. Students were selected from 10th class. This sample provide appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the Govt Girls High School village Hercho.

7.How did you try to solve the problem?

(Narrate the process step wise. Procedure of intervention and date collection)

Research Methodology

All research methods and techniques that used in this study are given below.

Research Method:

Research method may describe into three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method and Mixed Method. In the study, quantitative research method was used, because data was collect by using questionnaire in the light of students’ and teachers’ perception.

Research Design:

It is descriptive and survey research about “Promoting conflict resolving skill in secondary school students through teaching forgiving”.

Population:

A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of govt girls high school village Herchoof Pakistan. The data was collected from student’s public schools by filling up the questionnaire.

Sampling Technique

Convenient sampling technique was used in this study.

 Sample

In research a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 30 students and 2 teachers were selected from govt girls high school village Hercho.

 Data collection procedure

Data was collected by through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled by one students according to his point of view. 2 questionnaires were filled by two teachers according to their point of view. In this way 32 questionnaire filled by 32 respondents. On the base of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students, and provided solution to sort out these problems. Open ended and closed ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed ended questionnaires 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2) and strongly Disagree (DA=1).

Data Analysis

Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analysis of data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means and minimum/maximum values etc.

8.What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

(For example observation, Questionnaire, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test etc.)

Instruments:

The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. Questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study. Questionnaire was developed in this way;

Questionnaire for students:

Following 10 questions were prepared for the questionnaire.

  1. Teachers educate their students through involvement in class activities to improve the conflict resolving skill among them.
  2. Using activity method of learning improve student’s conflict resolving skill at any level.
  3. Teacher collaboration allows students to ask questions from teachers and other students for developing Mutual cooperation.
  4. Students can communicate with international peers on education related matters through effective problem-solving ability and conflict resolving skill ability.
  5. Providing friendly classroom environment to any level students would be beneficial for conflict resolving skills without hesitation in the class.
  6. Communication like presentation in the class lead to self-confidence and Conflict resolving skill in students.
  7. Effective classroom environment improves conflict resolving ability of students.
  8. Presentations through MS PowerPoint and digital media improves students’ confidence and communication that lead to Mutual cooperation.
  9. Activity method of teaching finish the hesitation of students in the class regarding conflict resolving skill.
  • Students take interest and ask question when teacher forgiving in the class.

Data analysis

After the collection of the data it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.

9.What were the findings and conclusion?

    Findings

1.Overall majority 96 % of the respondents agreed that Teachers educate their students through involvement in class activities to improve the conflict resolving skill among them.

2.Overall majority 98 % of the respondents agreed that Using activity method of learning improve student’s conflict resolving skill at any level.

3.Overall majority 97 % of the respondents agreed that Classroom involvement allows students to ask questions from teachers and other students for developing Mutual cooperation.

4.Overall majority 91 % of the respondents agreed that Students can communicate with international peers on education related matters through effective problem-solving ability and conflict resolving skill.

  1. 5. Overall majority 91 % of the respondents agreed that providing friendly classroom environment to any level students would be beneficial for conflict resolving skills without hesitation in the class.

6.Overall majority 92 % of the respondents agreed that Communication like presentation in the class lead to self-confidence and Conflict resolving skill in students.

7.Overall majority 90 % of the respondents agreed Effective classroom environment improves conflict resolving ability of students.

8.Overall majority 91 % of the respondents agreed that Presentations through MS PowerPoint and digital media improves students’ confidence and communication that lead to Mutual cooperation.

9.Overall majority 95 % of the respondents agreed that Activity method of teaching finish the hesitation of students in the class regarding conflict resolving skill.

10.Overall majority 96 % of the respondents agreed that Students take interest and ask question when teacher forgiving in the class.

Conclusions:

The conclusions drawn from the study are as follows:

The results obtained by the study reveal that a study to improve the conflict resolving skill of slow learners of class by involvement of students in class conflict resolving activities. The researcher in this study, from the findings concluded by analysis of data that Student’s ratio of questioning ability for learning is higher for conflict resolving skill, communication skills, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence and honesty in primary school students.

According to the perceptions of high school students (in open-ended question), majority of the respondents agreed that involvement of students in class conflict resolving skills have a stronger effect on mutual cooperation. When a student asks question the seek.

Major suggestions as perceived by high school students to improve the Conflict resolving skill of slow learners by asking conflict resolving skills.These habits build in students by building self confidence in the personality of students.

10.Summary of the Project.

(What and how was research conducted-main objective, process and findings)

University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub theme. My topic that I choose“PROMOTING CONFLICT RESOLVING SKILL IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH TEACHING FORGIVING.”. I choose this topic because I have to face problem about this in the class. it was difficult to create concentrating environment in class during teaching.Interesting activities played important role for developing conflict resolving skill ability in students.

The sample comprised a total of 30 students and 2 teachers drawn from Govt Girls High School Hercho. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.

Questionnaire instrument used for teachers and students for data collection. Research design was descriptive. The result was finding that involvement in classroom analytical activities has good impact on student’s analytical questioning ability that lead to Mutual cooperation. Effective analytical activities in class helpful for maintaining concentration and motivation of students. In this way students learn easily with full concentration also.

11.How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?(Self-reflection)

The aim of this study was to Promoting conflict resolving skill in secondary school students through teaching forgiving.  My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students and teachers of Govt Girls High School village Hercho situated in Astore.

Conflict resolving ability was very important in study because it helps building learning skills in students. Appreciation and praise offering are very helpful for building confidence in students.

So I used different technique for creating Hygienic atmosphere in the class. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of hygienic atmosphere in home. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural area’s teachers create hygienic atmosphere in class then students have no problem of conflict resolving skill and focus in education. Students response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in home through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s Conflict resolving skill and learning by using conflict resolving method. Finally, I feel satisfied.

12.What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.

  • It made me good organizer.
  • It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
  • It enabled me that we can perform every task from students just on the base of motivation.
  • It enabled me how to create Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building mutual cooperation and conflict resolving skill in students.
  • Appreciation helpful for building analytical questioning skills in students.
  • It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
  • Before these activities I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
  • I started find out new things before I have not insert. But when I started my project a grate change brought in my thinking.
  • I capable to find out new things for learning in students.
  • It made me good effective teacher and mentor.
  • It made me good role model.
  • It made me confident. Teacher forgiving can help influence other to be a better person.
  • It made me capable to understand how to use activity teaching method in the classroom according to student’s psyche to maintain self-confidence and conflict resolving skill athigh level.
  • It tells me how unhygienic atmosphere effect on student’s self-motivation level and focus.

Q.13 List the works you cited in your project.

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