Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level

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Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level
Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level

Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level

Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level

Course Code: 8613

Semester: Spring 2021

Theme:Children’s Socio-Emotional Development

Sub-Theme:Interaction and relations with peers

Topic:Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level.

  • Socio-economic status:

The reason for this research was to explain the Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level. Financial status measures families and network’s remaining in connection to society. It can be comprehensively characterized as a person’s and network’s entrance to money related, social, and human capital assets. Alongside asset openness: it fills in as a significant determinant to get to personal satisfaction at individual, family, network and national level. Financial contrasts, for example, well being and nourishment status, home condition that give access to scholastically related encounters, versatility rates, and monetary resources can surely impact scholarly accomplishments. Low Socio-economic status associates with lower instructive accomplishment, neediness, and weakness, at last influence our general public, Inequities in well being conveyance, asset circulation, and personal satisfaction. In this research, by and large financial status of present area of Faisalabad is monetarily not all that good. 

Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level

  • Occupation of the Parents:

Parents with the high occupation are in a superior condition to help and support their kids ethically, mentally, profoundly and mentally. However, Parents with less lofty occupation because of precariousness and budgetary issues can’t give satisfactory present day offices to upgrade their kid’s instruction. The control of the Parents from area chose in this research is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so great. The children who Parents with government employment are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. 

  • Earning trends of the Parents:

Parents with lofty occupation give important offices expected to the upgrade of their kids training. They likewise give them backing and support toward the accomplishment of instructive accomplishment. Then again, children from less esteemed occupations need such huge numbers of favorable circumstances when contrasted with those from the Parents with high renowned occupation. They face a great deal of difficulties both at home and area, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom research, and result in poor scholarly execution.

  • Literacy Rate:

In 2020, Faisalabad’s literacy rate of 48% for females was noticeably lower than the 67% for males; rural literacy was 47% compared to 72% in urban areas. Faisalabad has several research and educational institutions, both public and private.

Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your home / institution.

During pandemic situation, all parents and children staying at their home all time. I see children playing in front of their houses but most of parents use Games & application and activities for their children to keep them at home. After talking some parents and senior teachers I decided to choose the following research problem:

“Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level”.One of the aims of the education is to equip children with the necessities of the changing and developing world. Definitely the peer interactions help learning and understanding in many ways.

The interactions among peers in the classroom are a normal and essential part of the learning process that influence the lifelong learning habits of students. The potential effects of peer relationships are reciprocal: Some students are more receptive than others. On one extreme, for example, is the student who values and seeks peer input on every decision; on the other is the social isolate who avoids interaction in and out of the classroom. This entry examines selected variables that can influence learners, including developmental differences, motivational and learning considerations, and the function of the classroom contexts. Maslow viewed the need for love and belongingness as a step toward achievement in his hierarchy of motivation model, which he described in 1954. In this view, the deprivation of more basic needs hinders progress along the path to achievement. In Maslow’s model, people must have love and belongingness issues satisfied in order to address needs of achievement. For example, a student with deprived relationship concerns will be less able to participate in classroom learning opportunities. The ability to learn is built on a foundation of comfortable relationships with others, including peers and family, and classroom learning is all about learning with and in the presence of others

With consideration of these social determinants, how then can the educational process be structured to boost the learning of individuals? For younger students, providing a whole-class environment that enriches learning opportunities with teachers who model positive learning values will set the new learner on a path toward academic achievement. Encouraging elementary students to interact with peers, adults, and family members who have strong learning desires can support the students’ development as learners. Although peer influences may not yet be as powerful as they will become in student achievement motivation, the effects of young students’ interactions cannot be disregarded.

As the learner matures, the importance of how peers view the learner’s actions and decisions may well supersede the opinions of others, possibly even the views of the learners themselves. The academic environment needs to be structured in a fashion that allows for student interaction but sets boundaries that afford pro-social behavior. Students who are concentrating on unresolved issues in their social life, whether these issues result from social isolation or from social or home crisis, will be less able to profit from classroom opportunities. Recognition of the strategic effort required to maintain classroom social and academic order can help both the learner and the teacher decide how to approach problems addressed in either domain.

Within the classroom, time and organization can be established to focus students on their learning. Pairing and grouping students by their devotion to academics, for example, may benefit all involved. Those who value learning can share their enthusiasm and act as mentors for those who have other priorities. Students who motivate themselves in nonacademic directions can view and appreciate the choices of peer learners.

This study will identify the dimension of class room learning through peer interactionthat most influence and contribute to student academic achievement.

Q.2. What was your discussion with your colleague/friend/senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

  • Discussion with colleagues/friends/supervisor:

Since I began my teaching practice, I have been using as many creative tasks as possible, not only strictly to teach students. In my action research project, I am therefore going to explore the Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary levelon student’s academic performance during covid-19 pandemic during this death-trap situation. I discussed with my colleagues/friends/supervisor for better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions.

First of all, I explained that that in China, where covid-19 originated, schools reopened with a reduced number of learners in classes and shortened school days after months of attempts to contain the virus. For example, in Beijing and most cities, classes are limited to 20 students instead of the regular 30 students. The schools also close at 3:30 in the afternoon. A practice that is also changing the physical learning space for children is the wearing of creative winged hats that give children cues to keep a meter away from their peers.

  • Discussion with college:

My colleague pointed out that Learning and teaching are highly social activities. Interactions between students and teachers and between students and peers play a fundamental role in the learning process. He looked at learning as an activity rooted in social interactions with others and the outside world. He asserted that when children interact with adults or more capable peers, higher mental functions are initiated. Cognitive development is “best fostered in a social environment where students are active participants and where they are helped to reflect on their learning”.

  • Discussion with Superior:

my supervisor said that Promoting student autonomy and encouraging student interactions have been extended to the arena of assessment. Students’ behaviour and attitude toward learning are often shaped by the assessment system. While, instructor­only assessment provides limited feedback and interactions with students, student participation in assessment is usually inadequate. Research has suggested that some power should be transferred to students in order to achieve higher student engagement and to better promote learning. In order to address this issue, some alternative assessment approaches such as peer assessment, self­assessment, and portfolio assessment have been promoted in recent years. The focus of this paper is to explore the use of peer assessment in elementary education, and highlight and discuss a specific peer assessment approach.

  • Discussion with friends:

One of  friend said that Peer assessment is a process in which students evaluate the performance or achievement of peers. While peer assessment can be summative, peer marking is used to provide accountability and to check the level of learning by assigning a quantitative mark— it often focuses on formative goals. Formative peer assessment usually involves students in two roles: assessors and assessees. As assessors, students provide detailed and constructive feedback regarding the strength and weakness of their peers’ work. As assessees, students view peer feedback and improve their own work. He defined this assessment method as a process of reflection on “what learning has taken place and how”.

  • Discussion with Teachers:

As indicated by my friend that the Oral tasks in the task based learning (TBL) classroom may be real world tasks such as planning a holiday, or may be pedagogical tasks such as performing an information gap activity, but what both have in common is that the tasks are meaningful to the learner and involve real communication.

Tasks themselves vary in type, and are thought to provide opportunities for learning from the perspective of both cognitive and socially oriented theories. From a cognitive viewpoint, closed tasks, that is, those which have a predetermined answer, are thought to provide more opportunities for negotiation of meaning and interactional modifications than open tasks, that is, those which have no predetermined answer. However, it has been suggested that open tasks could provide learners with more opportunities to produce longer turns and manage their discourse more effectively.

  • My Opinion:

According to me In learning classrooms today, oral interaction between learners is seen as a way in which learners can participate in real communication, which supports the learning process. Although it is not claimed that interaction can be regarded as a complete, causal theory of learning, it can be seen as “a window through which we can view important aspects of development”  and both cognitive and socially orientated theories of learning recognise the role it plays in learning.

Q.3. What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles / websites)? ( (Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem)

A Literature Review In this chapter I will discuss the theoretical positions that offered support for the questions I proposed in this study as well as the relevant literature that has looked at peer interactions that arise from children’s participation in this culture. I have synthesized the developmental theories that offer explanations for why children cognitively and socially excel from their peer interactions as well as the importance of peer collaboration in the lives of young children. The literature presented in this chapter discusses previous systematic observations of peer groups and children’s interactions within these groups. A critique of these studies is presented followed by a narrative on how the present study attempted to address limitations identified in studies of children’s peer groups and their interactions. Finally, arguments for why this research from a teacher’s perspective is necessary to better understand the children they teach is presented as well as the importance of teachers as researchers.  

Children live in a social world comprised of different social matrices. Their experience in their social world is not a private activity, but a social event that involves exchange of actions by themselves and other children (Corsaro, 1992). Children enter into social matrices through interaction with other children, namely their peers. Peers are defined as a group of children who spend time together on a daily basis (Corsaro, 1992). The interaction between peers is different from those with adults because of their egalitarian stature (Hartup, 1992). In child/child interactions, children negotiate and follow each other, learning throughout how to enter into and sustain joint exchanges in the environment (Mandell, 1986). They conceive the social world through their experiences in these interactions and establish social understandings between each other that eventually frame continuing social exchange between themselves and others within the matrices. Children have a variety of interactional relationships with their peers that have different processes and developmental effects (Brown &well Carriger, 1991). The social exchanges in these interactions produce essential social knowledge that the children must understand in order to continue to reproduce and build upon their experiences in their social world. Children together discover a world that is full of meaning and interpret these meanings into their own understanding. These meanings become important aspects of their social and cognitive development.

  • Theoretical Underpinnings

Constructivist theories as well as the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky reinforce the impacts of children’s participation in peer interactions. Corsaro and Rizzo (1988) discussed constructivism as an interpretive approach to childhood socialization. They emphasized that the approach stresses children’s active role in their development. Children’s activities are always embedded in a social context and involve children’s use of language and interpretive abilities. Children interpret, organize, and use information from the environment, and use the knowledge they gain from these actions to acquire skills and knowledge. As they discover a world that is full of meaning through interactions with their peers, they help to shape and share in their own developmental experiences. Corsaro and Rizzo (1988) also emphasized the fact that children’s participation in interactional routines contributes to their acquisition of language and understanding of culture. The interactions they participate in within their peer culture also help them to understand their personal culture in a clearer manner. This occurs because when children enter into a social system, they interact and negotiate with those in the system. For preschool children, this system can be the children in their peer groups. Together, the children establish understandings that then become fundamental social knowledge that they will continue to build upon, thereby increasing their understanding of the cultural milieu in which they exist. The constant dialogue between the children as they discuss and negotiate helps to strengthen their language skills. Finally, Corsaro and Rizzo (1988) stressed that children’s interactions outside of their family, namely with their playmates, effect their development. When children create peer cultures, they transform their knowledge and practices into the knowledge and skills necessary to exist in society. This occurs through the constant dialogue, negotiation, and construction of experiences between the children within the interactions. The children are able to do this at a level between them that is different from interactions with adults and is more in tune With their needs.

Vygotsky argued that in order to determine the nature and path of development in children it is essential to examine the social environment where the development occurs (Tudge, 1992). He believed that children do not develop in isolation, but rather in a social matrix. This social matrix is formed by the interconnection of social relationships and interactions between the children. They are shaped by the social organization of the society as a whole in which children exist (Nicolopoulou, 1993). Through these relationships and interactions, children collaborate towards a shared goal. As they work together, their culture is transmitted throughout the group through constant communication. Children use their actions and language as communication devices during their collaborations. The various constructs that make up each individual child’s culture are expressed and shared between the children as they discuss and contribute to each other’s ideas. The children are bound as a group through their identity and union, and the sociocultural meanings that are expressed by the children contribute to each child’s identity and character. Together the children carry out collective representations which lead to cognitive and social advancement in the children (Nicolopoulou, 1993). These representations consist of collaboration between the children using materials and conversations. As the children coordinate ideas, they are able to contribute to their present understanding of the situation and the information that is related to it cognitively and socially. Vygotsky argued that cognitive development not only takes place with social support from others in an interaction, but also involves the development of skill with socially developed tools for mediating intellectual activity. Skill is developed using cultural tools such as language through participation and communication. He argued that cognitive and social processes correspond in interactions due to the derivation of individual cognitive processes within the social interaction (Rogoff, 1993). The social environment is a major contributor to the cognition of children because of the open area of communication that exists between them that allows them to express and negotiate ideas as well as contribute to each other’s understanding. 

  • The Role of Collaboration

Vygotsky believed that children reconstruct their understanding of the world in a social manner through collaborative processes with their peers. He attributed the benefits of collaboration to the mutual involvement by the children, the equality of the relationship between the children when in a collective group, and the motivation of children to collaborate based on their shared understandings (Tudge, 1992). In particular, when children of mixed knowledge levels interact in collaboration, they are able to communicate on a level that they are able to understand and share with each other. Vygotsky labeled language “a powerful and strong tool” in children’s interactions because of the shared meanings that form between children as well as the important transmission of social meanings (Tudge, 1992). Within the importance of language, Vygotsky recognized the importance of feedback between the children to promote a high level of joint understanding. As the children listen to and respond to each other’s ideas and contributions to the interaction, they are able to reinforce their understandings, thereby extending their cognitive abilities. Therefore, the feedback contributes to cognitive comprehension because of the joint understanding between the children (Tudge&Winterhoff, 1993). 

Vygotsky argued that every function for a child occurs first on a social level and then on an individual level (Corsaro & Rizzo, 1988). The language between the children as well as in each individual child moves through the same process.

People do not live their lives in moral or ethical isolation but grow up within particular moral traditions (Reiss, 1999). Liberal democracy can only flourish if its citizens hold certain moral and civic values, and manifest certain virtues (Althof & Berkowitz, 2006). In the modern era, technology is affecting society in ubiquitous fashion while maintaining its upright position, and both science and technology are also being influenced by society. The rapid advances in science and technology and increased societal complexities also underpin the importance of morals, values and ethics and their benefits to society.

Morals refer to human behavior where morality is the practical activity and, ethics describes the theoretical, systematic, and rational reflection upon that human behavior (Churchill, 1982). Values are linked to beliefs and attitudes and guide human behavior (Rennie, 2007). Morals, values, and ethics are strongly attached to society, spirituality and culture (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1991). There are three meaning of ethics. Firstly, ethics is commonly taken as a synonym for morality, the universal values and standards of conduct that every rational person wants every other to follow. Secondly, ethics is a well‐established branch of philosophy that studies the sources of human values and standards, and struggle to locate them within theories of human individual and social condition. Thirdly, professional ethics, and it is not universal nor is it ethical theory; it refers to the special codes of conduct adhered to by those who are engaged in a common pursuit. Professional ethics is an integral part of the concept of a profession (Kovac, 1996).

A wide range of misunderstandings and misconceptions surround morals, values and ethics(Churchill, 1982). Morals, values and ethics are sometime difficult to understand because the misunderstandings and misconceptions surrounding them hinder arrival at the correct explanation. The objective of moral education lies in the fact that it can develop shared feelings with others, and makes one committed to one’s own personal responsibilities and actions (Campbell, 2008). Moral agency is a dual state that encompasses the teacher as a moral person engaged in ethical teaching through professional conduct and, as a moral educator who teaches students with the same core values and principles that he or she strives to uphold in practice (Campbell, 2003). Ethical knowledge can best capture the essence of teaching professionalism as it enables the teachers to appreciate the complexities of their moral agency (Campbell, 2008). Ethics is firmly connected to virtues of responsibility, trust and credibility. It should always be fair, honest, transparent, and respectful of the rights and privacy of others in society (Frank et al., 2011). Numerous sets of values exist in society.

In the context of science, three particular domains of values are present in society: the values associated with education, values of science and values of science education. These three values remain in close proximity, and interact or overlap with one another (Hildebrand, 2007). Thus science cannot be isolated from society. Values in science education include values associated with teaching science in schools, epistemic values of science, societal values and the personal values of scientists. The existence of value is not context specific. For example, western science has different values from other indigenous science value sets (Corrigan, Cooper, Keast, & King, 2010). Morality, values and ethics are always connected and interrelated to society, and attached to societal culture, which are constantly influenced by politics (Unesco, 1991; Witz, 1996).

Since the 19th century there have been rapid science and technological advancements; recently, globalization is profoundly influencing society, science education and teaching practices. Prior to the nineteenth century, science practices were centered on moral and religious values along with an appreciation of philosophical and metaphysical aspects of science education. At that time, societal activities were both supportive of, as well as supported by science practices. The positive side was that it enabled the science to work such that it influenced individual  moral and spiritual evolution, besides fostering morals and higher values. But compared to that system the present system is not very supportive of science practices and is found to be significantly deteriorated. It was argued that the current science practicing ideology is strongly acting against the individual’s inner moral and spiritual unfolding and fulfilment (Witz, 1996). Such opposing ideology may restrict an individual from appreciating the goodness and beauty of life and truth. Thus it cannot provide proper orientation and bases for a sound mind in a sound body that upholds morals and values; which in fact, were historically provided by society, religion, traditional cultural values and moralities.

more than 350 years science education focused on the way that benefitted individuals and served society (Hurd, 2000). The landscape of science education and science practices has significantly changed over the last 4‐5 decades. During the 1980s and 1990s significant efforts have been made to identify social and higher order thinking skills associated with science‐technology literacy that may serve as a framework for developing a lived curriculum. The lived curriculum may help students to cope with changes that influence human welfare (Hurd, 1998), and foster morals, values and ethics.

Currently science educators are facing enormous challenges despite various education reforms and substantial research undertaken over the last few decades. The most important and alarming challenge is students’ decreasing motivation and interest in sciences especially in the enabling sciences (Batterham, 2000; Chowdhury, 2013, 2014; Kiemer, Gröschner, Pehmer& Seidel, 2015; Tytler, 2007). In recent years students’ interest in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects has also dropped significantly throughout secondary education (Kiemer et al., 2015). At the same time, the rapid technological advancements and enhanced complexities in social life in the globalized world perhaps makes it more difficult to emphasize morals, values and ethics, and present them through an improved curriculum and teaching practices.

This article explains the necessity for embedding morals, values, ethics and character education in science education and science teaching. It presents the rationale and arguments, and emphasizes the nurturing of morals, values and ethics in students through an improved science education curriculum, and describes their benefits to society. The author examines how rapid science and technological advancements as well as globalization are contributing to the complexities of social life and underpinning the importance of morals, values and ethics in science education and science teaching. Syntheses and analyses are presented to the philosophical and pedagogical questions related to morals, values, ethics and character education that may help conceptualize and articulate a solid theoretical framework for developing school programs. Obstacles in teaching morals/ethics and implementing character education in the sciences are discussed.

A comparative study between the philosophical and theoretical basis of modern Western moral education and the universal Islamic moral values and education is outlined to the extent of gaining benefit and developing an enriched theoretical framework of moral and character education that may increase the universal acceptability of the Western theoretical framework of moral and character education. A range of teaching, learning and pedagogical techniques are proposed with emphases on the specific domain of science education to foster morals, values and ethics in students’ minds and develop various skills and attributes necessary for success in the sciences. The proposed techniques and issues may help to improve students’ moral and ethical understanding and reasoning, problem‐solving, and decision‐making. Successful implementation of the proposed techniques and issues may also help to reverse students’ demotivation and disengagement in sciences, which are currently the most pressing needs to address. Through the proposed changes students are able to grasp the social implications of their science studies, and understand the business consequences and control the environment; they can reflect on how science and technology considerations differ from personal and political values, find various limitations of science, and acquire scientific knowledge and relate them to real‐life situations or other knowledge.

Q.4. What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature. What are the key terms in your topic or study? what do you mean of these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project)

  • Key Terms in the Project/Major variables:

A word that serves as a key, as to the meaning of another word, a sentence, passage, or the like. The key concept is usually the main idea in the essay question. To provide the readers a better understanding of the frequently used terms in the study, the following terms are defined operationally:

  • Peer Interaction

Peer interaction contributes strongly to children’s development and learning, but the processes by which peer interaction is shaped in preschool classrooms, particularly classrooms in rural communities, are largely unknown.

  • Mutual Cooperation Value.

Mutual cooperation is a positive attitude that supports the development in the countryside and also need and must be maintained as a manifestation of the habit of doing a job together for the same purpose. Mutual cooperation is a value that is still held firm by rural communities as well as very different from urban communities that tend to individualist. In Indonesian social and political context, mutual cooperation is a part of social and cultural ethics that depart from the humanity that is the trigger of a sense of unity and diversity as a nation state.

  • Education:

Education iis iwhat ipushes ius ito iachieve iour igoals, ifeel imore fulfillediand iimprove iour ioverall iquality iof ilife. iUnderstanding iand ideveloping iyour iEducation ican ihelp iyou ito itake icontrol iof imany iother iaspects iof iyour ilife.

  • Motivation

Motivation is the word derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behavior can be – desire for money & Success.

  • Pandemic Condition

A pandemic is defined as “an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people”. The classical definition includes nothing about population immunity, virology or disease severity.

Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project? (Objective / purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project)

Research problems and research objectives basically have the same meaning. Therefore, very often research problems are stated in the same way as the research objectives. This indicates the important role of research problems and research objectives in research activities. However, research objectives should be stated differently from the research problems, as the research problems are stated as questions to be answered by the researchers, while the objectives are stated as the goal of research to be achieved by the researchers. Research objectives are more focused than research problems. 

  • Objective/purpose of the study
  1. To measure the impact of peer Interaction on students` academic achievement over the period of time
  2. To measure the impact of peer Interaction on students` academic achievement across experimental and control groups
  3. To measure the impact of peer Interaction on students` academic achievement in terms of over the time performance variance across experimental and control group
  4. explore how researchers have defined peer Interaction;
  5. learn how teachers can encourage development of mutual cooperation skills in their students;
  6. review best practices in assessing moral values.
  7. To identify teachers’ roles in the enhancement of peer interactionsin their students
  8. To identify students academic achievement among school students throughpeer Interaction.
  • Critical Question:

Peer Interaction in education is a very broad topic, and many questions could have been asked of teachers and students to gather information for this study. The researcher narrowed down the topic by focusing on teachers and students’ motivation, grades, attendance, and attitude. As a result, this study considered the following research questions:

  1. Peer Interaction has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts r u agree?
  2. Peer Interaction influences the students learning and academic achievement r u agree?
  3. Does students learn more when Teachers are actively involved inlearning activities?
  4. Is Teacher responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics (e.g., socio-economic status, ethnicity, biological risk factors)?
  5. What obstacles to effective peer Interaction do teachers and students perceive.
  6. What antecedents can explain the obstacles perceived by teachers and students?
  7. what are the goals of peer Interaction?
  8. How are students prepared for moral values?

Q.6  Who were the participants in your project? (05 marks)(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g. the early   grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class V III who did not have good communication skills)

In order to understand the complexities of much validity, researchers’ participation in and observation of the phenomenon should be the appropriate approach for more authentic understanding and explanation of the qualitative data. The targeted population was children enrolled in elementary (8th) level of Usama Bin Zaid public high school. However, in this questionnaire, forty (40) children, taking a related course, were selected in Usama Bin Zaid public high school located in Faislabad as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included children of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the children in middle(8th) level. The peer reading strategies was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding written skills identification and improvement for middle (8th) children. This curriculum purported to explain the following topic.

Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level during pandemic situation(destress time) among the children of middle (8th) level through mutual cooperation.

Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem (Narrate the process step-wise. Procedure of intervention and data collection)

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the Role of classroom learning through peer interaction at elementary level. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.

  • Sampling:

The entire peer learning from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of Usama Bin Zaid public high schoo. It was quite convenient for the researcher, being a resident of District Faislabad to accumulate quality data from chosen city and school. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population. The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample. The students of Usama Bin Zaid public high school and their Teachers were selected for this class based action research.

  • Ethical Considerations:

An action research is considered „ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and area governing body. Permission was sought from area peoples. The rights of the participants (elementary level children) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.

  • Collection of Data:

The term questionnaire is often used interchangeably with survey. It is common and easy method of data collection in action research. Similarly, it is quickest, cheapest, confidential method of collecting data from respondents. So in such type studies, it is very necessary during development of measurement tool for quality data to keep all aspects in mind. Quantitative method was used to get important and meticulous information. Information was collected through questionnaire consisting only close ended questions relative to research objectives. The close ended questionnaire was made for data collection.

Q.8. What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed? (For example: observation, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test, etc.)

Questionnaire was used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of questions were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The questionnaire was prepared to attain study objectives.

  • Quantitative research

Quantitative data contains Closed ended information such as that found on attitude positive behavior and performance instruments. In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out the developing of educational apps uses through motivation activity and this questionnaire has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.

  • Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a questionnaire consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format. A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.

  • Critical Questions

I developed the questionnaire to obtain data on children’s well-being  through engaging them at grade 8th. Questionnaires are a convenient way of collecting data from a large number of individuals.

  • study considered the following research questions:
  1. Peer Interaction has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts r u agree?
  2. Peer Interaction influences the students learning and academic achievement r u agree?
  3. Does students learn more when Teachers are actively involved in learning activities?
  4. Is Teacher responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics (e.g., socio-economic status, ethnicity, biological risk factors)?
  5. What obstacles to effective peer Interaction do teachers and students perceive.
  6. What antecedents can explain the obstacles perceived by teachers and students?
  7. what are the goals of peer Interaction ?
  8. How are students prepared for moral values?

Q.9. What were the findings and conclusion? (Provide instruments and analysis as appendix)

  • Findings and Discussions

Finding

Scale

1.Often   Sometimes   3. Never 

 

 

 

Sr.

No.

Indicators

Often

Sometimes

Never  

1

Peer interaction has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts r u agree?

65%

0

35%

2

Peer interaction influences the students learning and academic achievement r u agree?

55%

35% 

10%

3

Does students learn more when Teachers are actively involved in learning activities?

50%

40%

10%

4

Is Teacher responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics (e.g., socio-economic status, ethnicity, biological risk factors)?

 

55%

40%

5%

5

What obstacles to effective collaboration do teachers and students perceive?

60%

30%

10%

6

What antecedents can explain the obstacles perceived by teachers and students?

90%

5%

5%

7

What are the goals of peer interaction ?

80%

10%

10%

8

How are students prepared for moral values?

90%

0%

10%

 

  • Major Findings
  • 65% of the students admitted that The peer Interaction has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts.
  • 55% of the students admitted that peer Interaction influence the students learning and academic achievement.
  • More than half 50% of the students admitted that students learn more when teachers are actively involved in learning activities with students.
  • 55% students admitted that increases in teacher responsiveness behaviours result in increases in young children’s collaborative skills and academic achievements.
  • 60 % students admitted that the moral values interactions of middle school children, found low-quality coordination among group members when they participated in problem-solving tasks. Her study showed that group members did not pay attention to others’ opinions, interrupted them, and rejected alternative suggestions without justification. These inappropriate behaviours inhibited group functioning and individual learning. Furthermore, noted that the quality of students’ explanations in group interaction in middle and secondary classrooms is often below a level that enables shared knowledge construction.
  • 90 % participants said that Previous studies identified common problems perceived by either teachers or students, but an integrated understanding of the obstacles to effective moral values is lacking. Therefore, potential causes of these problems may have been overlooked.
  • According to 80 % participants Research shows that educational experiences that are active, social, contextual, engaging, and student-owned lead to deeper learning. The benefits of peer interaction include:
  • oral communication, self-management, and leadership skills.
  • Promotion of student-faculty interaction.
  • Increase in student retention, self-esteem, and responsibility.
  • Exposure to and an increase in understanding of diverse perspectives.
  • Preparation for real life social and employment situations.
  • future work environment by allowing students to learn from each other and solve problems in different ways. The teacher acts as a lead learner instead by asking questions that will provoke answers that will change his mind.
  • Conclusions

In conclusion, this exploratory study of students’ perceptions revealed that students were generally positive toward this technology ­facilitated peer Interaction module. Some students agreed that this anonymous system protected their identities, which made it easier for them to provide honest and sincere comments. Students also acknowledged that this web based model was fast and easy to use, as compared to paper based systems. In addition, students recognized the positive influence of training on peer Interaction as they commented that they benefited from learning how to conduct critical assessment, reading peer feedback, and viewing peer projects. Findings of this study suggested a technology facilitatedpeer Interaction model may be effective in addressing three common issues in peer assessment: peer pressure, time of engagement, and students’ capacity for critical assessment.

Q.10. Summary of the Project What and how was the research conducted – main objective, process and findings

Research studies are being conducted in order to provide results that will help with social, professional and the purpose of this action research will be a common knowledge that when teachers are seen upholding Home tasks for children’s, it creates a high level of children confidence and trust in the learning process to empower studentswithmoral values.

The main purpose of this study was to enhance learning through peer interaction of elementary school students in Usama Bin Zaid public high school .on academic achievement.

Peer interactions are guiding principles of life. They are responsible for the all round development of an individual. Values reflect ones personality, his attitude, behavior, his mission and vision. Values are backbone of any personality, religion, society or a nation. Peer interaction can bring in peace of mind, joyful environment, better quality of life, sustainability, harmony in the global society. Country like Pakistan has a tradition of moral values and its education at various stages. Being a diversified country in religion as well as geographical region moral education in Pakistan was basically through religious talks or otherwise. Our country finds itself faced with serious tensions and challenges of corruption, casteism, linguaism, provincialism, and regionalism etc. Value oriented education can go a long way in curbing these fissiparous tendencies and inculcate the sentiments of unity and solidarity among various sections of the Pakistan’s society. Character is the foundation of self development. Character formation requires the development of traits such as purity, perseverance, faith, sincerity, obedience, fortitude, veneration, humanistic tendency etc. Education is a process of developing ones personality and not just gaining a certificates and skills. Education is a process by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, intellect is expanded and one learns to stand on ones feet.

The aim of education has been determined by philosophical, social, economic, political and cultural norms of the society. Education must be capable of stabilizing social order, conserving culture in the society and acts as an instrument of social reconstruction. Education should not only preserve the social heritage but also be able to enrich it. Education being a multipurpose process not only inculcates social, economic and cultural awareness in humanity but is also an important medium for grasping and promoting life enhancing values among human beings. The education can decide the fate and future of our society or country. It equips the youth of the nation to the rational and pragmatic approach of life. It helps the society to value life and work for the betterment. Unless proper education is provided, it will be panic and chaos for the youth in the country. It is the education which makes the system value based and adheres to the accepted norms of the society. The purpose of education is self affirmation and not self negation. Value education alone can provide real meaning and content of life and enhances the cultural factor within human being.

  • Purpose of the study
  1. To measure the impact of peer Interaction on students` academic achievement over the period of time
  2. To measure the impact of peer Interaction on students` academic achievement across experimental and control groups
  3. To measure the impact of peer Interaction on students` academic achievement in terms of over the time performance variance across experimental and control group
  4. explore how researchers have defined peer Interaction;
  5. learn how teachers can encourage development of mutual cooperation skills in their students;
  6. review best practices in assessing moral values.
  7. To identify teachers’ roles in the enhancement of peer interactions in their students
  8. To identify students academic achievement among school students through peer Interaction.
  • Process of Data collection

I used action research method for existing research. Observation, focus group interviews, questionnaires and field notes by me to collect the data. The interviews used in this study were semi-structured. I conducted direct interview of students during their free time. I also used mobile phone for recording data. The head teacher introduced me to the class teacher. I assured that the study is the sole purpose of writing a research project and that the data collected would be treated with utmost. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (IBM SPSS Statistics 20) program was used for data screening, data transformations and analysis. Study identified a significant, causal, and reciprocal relationship between classroom effective environment and students learning.

  • Findings

In conclusion, this exploratory study of students’ perceptions revealed that students were generally positive toward this technology­ facilitated peer Interaction module. Some students agreed that this anonymous system protected their identities, which made it easier for them to provide honest and sincere comments. Students also acknowledged that this web based model was fast and easy to use, as compared to paper based systems. In addition, students recognized the positive influence of training on peer Interaction as they commented that they benefited from learning how to conduct critical assessment, reading peer feedback, and viewing peer projects. Findings of this study suggested a technology facilitated peer Interaction model may be effective in addressing three common issues in peer assessment: peer pressure, time of engagement, and students’ capacity for critical assessment.

Q.11. How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt? (Self-reflection) 

In the earlier I was bit confused when I went to area for research. I was hesitated to start my work in the area but when I arranged meeting with teacher then suddenly this hesitation went away. The staff of the area told me that we will help you and guide you whenever you need. After meeting with parents and their positive response I was satisfied and ready to do it. After this practice I feel that it was great experience of my life because I experienced a lot of new things. I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks. I m feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Teacher and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. This practice also improved my writing skills too. I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grimmer. My vocabulary has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other. The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect. Since mindfulness is about being present in the moment and noticing all the sensations and emotions in your mind and life, one thing you can do is ask yourself where in your mind you feel your emotions. I had mixed feelings with research. I was bit nervous and somewhat curious to learn action research. I attend all of the meeting to reach 80% attendance to learn about how to do action research effectively. My experience regarding current research was informative. In this regard my respective supervisor helps me a lot.

Q.12. What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

This research process teaches me a lot of professional skills.

After completing research, it felt more confident about the work. It felt motivated to solve classroom issues through action research. It added confidence not only in myself but in students and colleagues. As a confident person the researcher can now inspire others to be confident, and my confidence can help influence my students to be a better person.

At start, discussed my research objectives with colleagues and senior staff, the researcher conducted questionnaire from teachers of selected school. This developed my communication skills as well. Being able to communicate with not only my students but with parents and staff is an essential skill. Almost all of my day as a teacher is spent communicating with students and colleagues so it is crucial to be able to talk clear and concise in order to get my point across.

During research, it felt that there are a number of areas that still need to be studied to solve classroom issues and problems. Teaching is a lifelong learning process. It’s now learnt that the world is always changing, along with the curriculum and educational technology, so it’s up to me, the teacher, to keep up with it. Teaching method is very important to motivate students and to develop their interest toward subject. Many new things were learnt in this research and now the researcher is willing to try new things, from new educational apps to teaching skills and electronic devices. The researcher learnt that being innovative means not only trying new things, but questioning my students, making real-world connections and cultivating a creative mindset. It’s getting my students to take risks and having students learn to collaborate.

The last but most important thing that learnt in whole research work is commitment. A teacher needs to always be engaged in their profession. The students need to see that their teacher is present and dedicated to being there for them.

Q.13. List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). 

References

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  • Beykont, Z., &Daiute, C. (2002). Inclusiveness in higher education courses: International       student perspectives. Equity & Excellence in Education, 35(1), 35-42.
  • Brecht, R. D., & Robinson, J. L. (1995). The value of formal instruction in study abroad:   Student reactions in context. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study      abroad context (317-334). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
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  • E., & Wyat-Smith, C. (1996). Academic and non-academic difficulties: Perceptions of     graduate non-English speaking background students. TESL-EJ, 2(1), 1-19.
  • Canadian Bureau for International Education. (2014). About international education: Facts and      Retrieved June 23, 2015 from http://www. http://www.cbie.ca/about-ie/facts-and-Figures/
  • Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. New York:
  • Oxford University Press.Cheng, L., Myles, J., & Curtis, A. (2004). Targeting language support for non-native English speaking graduate students at a Canadian university. TESL Canada, 21(2), 50-71.
  • Coleman, S. (1997). International students in the classroom: A resource and an opportunity.
  • International Education, Spring, 52-61.
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