Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level

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The role of the family context in the Regulation of emotions
The role of the family context in the Regulation of emotions

 Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level

MANUAL RESEARCH PROJECT

B.Ed. (1.5 Year / 2.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613

Semester: Spring 2021

Region:………….

Theme: Children’s Socio-Emotional Development

Sub-theme: Socialization

Topic: Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level

Q.1      Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.

I choose this theme because socialization give the world and life in it meaning. Today’s socialization as one of the influential factor which affect student’s academic achievement has received increasing attention. It has been declared that high socialization can lead to high academic achievement. The Socialization can be referred as person’s global judgments of competency regarding one’s self-worth. This construct emerges when children compare their self-evaluation with actual performance on a variety of tasks. Moreover, this comparison between the perceived self and the ideal self is very crucial especially during adolescence because adolescents encounter with diversified job of developing and challenges of their own age. Hence, development of socialization is considered as one of the most important developmental processes of adolescence.

In general, high socialization help individuals to view themselves as active and capable persons to promote changes through effort and set higher goals which cause learning new things. Interestingly, numerous researchers have demonstrated that the best way to improve student achievement is to increase their socialization. Research has also documented that high self- acceptance plays an important role in academic achievement, social and personal responsibility. Those who have higher academic achievement tend to feel more confident in contrast those who lack confidence in themselves achieve less.

Additionally, gender is the important factor which influence on the growth, emerges and demonstration of socialization. Numerous differences have been found between males and females in their level of socialization during adolescence because they tend to adopt to gender stereotypes. Specifically, male socialization are thought to be more impressed by goals characterized by independence and autonomy, while socialization in female is more influenced by goals related to interdependence and sensitivity. The difference in socialization can lead to difference in academic achievement between boys and girls. It has been revealed that girls do better in school, get higher grades and can graduate from high school at a higher level than boys. Previous study showed the other influential factors in academic achievement. However, the present study revealed the important role of socialization in academic achievement. In other words, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between socialization and academic achievement as well as gain insight into the differences in socialization and academic achievement between boys and girls. This study endeavored to provide information for educators, counselors and teachers to apply strategies to prevent imbalance in academic achievement and socialization between male and female students in the classroom.

Q.2      What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.

Discussion with Supervisor:

My supervisor pointed out that a student’s socialization has a significant impact on almost everything she does — on the way she engages in activities, deals with challenges, and interacts with others. Socialization also can have a marked effect on academic performance. Low socialization can lessen a student’s desire to learn, her ability to focus, and her willingness to take risks. Positive socialization, on the other hand, is one of the building blocks of school success; it provides a firm foundation for learning.The challenge in working with children with low socialization is to restore their belief in themselves, so they persevere in the face of academic challenges. You do not need a formal program to promote socialization, however. Educators shape socialization every day, in the normal course of interacting with their students.

Discussion with Teacher:

My teacher told me that Praise the student in a specific and genuine way. Students are experts at distinguishing genuine feedback from empty compliments. They learn to dismiss vague words of praise as insincere, and perhaps even phony. Comments that suggest thoughtful appreciation of their work, on the other hand, are meaningful to them. Toward that end, let the student know in specific terms what you like about her work or behavior. If it is progressing slowly, praise her for small steps forward.

Discussion with Friends:

One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that show the student tangible evidence of progress. Expressing confidence in a student’s ability is important; pep talks alone might not be enough, however. Help the student appreciate her own improvement by pointing to concrete signs of growth — perhaps by taping an oral reading at the beginning of the year and comparing it to a later performance, by showing her papers from earlier in the year and contrasting them with later papers, or by demonstrating that the math problems she struggled with during the first marking period now come easily to her. You might also have the student place in a box index cards with spelling or reading words she has mastered.

Students with low socialization often are isolated from their classmates. You can promote a student’s peer involvement with others by finding ways to integrate her into activities that are take place both in and out of school. You might organize a group activity that includes her. Or ask a couple of friendly and accepting students to spend time with her during recess or lunch. If students pair up for class activities, assign the student a kind and easygoing partner. You also might want to encourage the student’s parents to arrange additional social contacts with classmates, perhaps suggesting potential playmates.

Q.3      What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles /websites)?

Children’s Socio-Emotional Development belong to productive skill rather than perceptive one. Itproduces a message to communicate. Spratt et al. (2020) state that Children’s Socio-Emotional Development learning belong to productive skills. She said that learning and Socialization, particularly, involve producing content rather thanreceiving it. The subjective aspects include things such as how the child is feeling about their life and how happy they are. The objective aspects include factors that affect the child’s feelings, for example, health, housing, poverty, social capital and education. Despite a fairly extensive literature, comparisons between countries and communities are difficult as ‘the field of social child indication is fragmented and lacking a unifying taxonomy’. Many different indicators have been identified. It means that Children’s Socio-Emotional Development learning will produce an output as anindicator that students have learned both those skills. It is clearly that the outputof learning skill can be oral conversation or drama. Meanwhile, the output oflearning skill can be written stories, letters, or other text types.

Hyland (2019), explains that Children’s Socio-Emotional Development are a way toshare personal meanings. The people construct their own views on topic. Through being good role models for our children and developing positive thinking and behavior patterns in them we can help improve our children’s Socio-Emotional Development, as well as teach them lifelong skills to maintain this into their adult life. Theywill share their views on a topic to each other then. A person’s views may bedifferent from other people’s views. It depends on their belief. Therefore, whenconstructing their views (ideas), the people have to make it understandable andacceptable.

Brown (2019) illustrates that Socialization are like swimming. When peoplewant to be able to swim, they must have like an instructor to show them basicways or tricks to swim, although the instructor is only their parents or their friends (not professional Parents). After they get the basic ways to swim,they will develop based on their own style. The more chance they get to swim,the more perfect they will be. Socialization are the last output after students learn separate acts continuously.

Wallace (2019) states that Socialization are the final product after students learnseveral stages of Socialization separately before. Those stages are note-taking,identifying a central idea, outlining, drafting, and editing. It means that Socialization are a complex skill. It covers many sub skills that have to be passed beforeproducing a good piece of Socialization. Socialization seem so complicated with its subskills, but it is actually can be learn with fun. Those skillsare related to each other. In this case, I am going to focus on Socialization activities. Socialization are a content skill that is very important.

Calkins (2019) stated that socialization are among the most important skills that foreign contentstudents need to develop. It is the last stage in learning content after listening,learning, and listening. In other Socialization, I can say that Socialization are anindicator whether students have gained all skills before or have not. Before thestudents have to learning, they should be able to listen, to speak, and to read.Socialization activities differs from other skills like learning and listening.

Brown (2019) states that trends in teaching Socialization of ESL and other foreign contentsare integrated with teaching other skills, particularly listening and learning.

Wajnryb (2020) recommends that learners should listen to the Children’s Socio-Emotional Development twiceand that both readings should be, as far as possible, identical. The text isread at natural speed with short pauses between each sentence. Studentsare told not to learning anything the first time, ‘but allow the Socialization to washover them. This is to allow students to get an overall feel forthe passage. On the second listening students should take down notes. At this stage the teacher should suggest that learners focus on noticing andrecording key content or information.

Van Patten et al. (2020) stated that children’s Socio-Emotional Development are an integrative strategy that was originally used for second content learners. The purpose of Children’s Socio-Emotional Development is to improve students’ knowledgeof text structure and grammar & learning within an authentic context. As research indicates, effective Socialization instructionfocuses on grammar & learning and text structure within context of use.

Bromley (2019) stated that in this instructional strategy, students listen to a model of   and deconstruct it collaboratively before it is recreated. The collaborative nature of Children’s Socio-Emotional Development allows all learners, but especially second content learners and striving readers, to examine an exemplary narrative passage and discover how the author created it. When students are explicitly instructed in the study of genres and their textual differences, the quality of their Socialization improves.

Q.4      What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions /description from literature.

The topic of my research is “Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level”.

Major Variable: socialization

Socialization:

Socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus “the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained”. Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology.

Learning:

Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain plants.

Q.5      What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Objective / purpose of the study:

The purpose of this action research will be find Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level atZaib Public School Lawa.

Objective of this research are:

  1. To carried out Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level.
  2. To explore the use of Socialization on students.

Research Question:

This study aims to make an action plan for the effecting of children’s Socio-Emotional Development of elementary class students in Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal. Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions:

  • How weAnalyze socialization in Elementary School Students in Lawa?
  • How Socialization effect Children’s life?

Critical Question:

  • To find out the effect of Teacher in developing Socialization at elementary level students?

Q.6   Who were the participants in your project?

The Children’s Socio-Emotional Development were developed on the basis of a series of research regarding Socialization identification and improvement for elementary class students. This curriculum purported to enhance students’ Socialization and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.

Participants:

The targeted population was students enrolled of elementary class of Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal. However, in this structured interview, thirty-two (32) students, taking a related course, were selected in aZaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal as a sample while considering the research acceptance and validity of this study. This sample included students of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the students of elementary class.

Q.7      How did you try to solve the problem?

Data Collection:

The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy for data amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affair data from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in such sort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information was assembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close by completed overview was made for data gathering.

Method of the study:

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level of elementary class level. Survey,interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.

Population:

It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal to accumulate quality data from chosen city and Area. Total Population of this school is nearly 650 students and 18 teachers.

Sampling:

Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population.The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample. The students of Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal andtheir teachers were selected for this class based action research.

Ethical Consideration:

An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (elementary class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.

Suggestion:

1)  Challenge the idea of “normal.”

Generally, people are treated differently because they’re seen as “the other.” For children, anything outside of “normal” may seem undesirable. It’s helpful to challenge the idea of “normal” to see past differences. All of us are born unique with different likes and preferences, so there is no one way to be “normal.”

2) Teach children to not be afraid to ask hard questions. Don’t shy away from hard answers.

It can be embarrassing to hear your child ask questions about “different” people, but questions often come from a place of innocent curiosity. It’s best to be as honest as possible, and it’s okay to say “I don’t know.” Scholastic advises “children often interpret a lack of response to mean that it’s not acceptable to talk about differences. If you’re unsure about what to say, try: ‘I need to think about your question and talk to you later.’

3) Cultivate empathy and community.

It can be hard for kids to see themselves in people who are different, which is why it’s important to encourage children to empathize and help them get to know people unlike themselves. Review your child’s media and related influences.  Does it include diverse individuals and oppose cultural stereotypes? When kids see “different” people in a positive light, they are better prepared to challenge harmful stereotypes. It’s helpful to encourage children to make friends who aren’t like them.

4) Know your child is listening.

Is may seem easier to shield children from challenging issues, such as racism, bigotry, or oppression. But the reality is children will be confronted with these issues through the media, in day-to-day conversations, or with their peers. Generally, young people are able to recognize when somebody is being treated differently. Seize the moment to model empathy and make it clear that it’s unacceptable to use slurs, to use identity as an insult, or to treat somebody worse because they are different.

5) Understand intent.

While adults may understand using nuanced language in reference to groups of people, children may not yet have the language or skill set to do so. “Generally, children want to know why people are different, what this means, and how those differences relate to them. Remember that children’s questions and comments are a way for them to gather information about aspects of their identity and usually do not stem from bias or prejudice,” writes Scholastic. If a child says something potentially offensive, it probably isn’t intended to be harmful. It’s best to correct the underlying misconceptions behind their statement or engage them in a conversation about how their words could hurt feelings.

Q.8      What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

Research Instrument:

Structured interview was used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of questions were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The structured interview was prepared to attain study objectives.A structured interview is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a structured interview consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.

Structured interview is:

  1. Children’s Socialization motivate them in learning.
  2. Strongly Agree
  3. Agree
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree
  6. Children’s Socialization helping them to learningin different knowledge.
  7. Strongly Agree
  8. Agree
  9. Disagree
  10. Strongly Disagree
  11. Children’s Socialization making them able tolearning in different content.
  12. Strongly Agree
  13. Agree
  14. Disagree
  15. Strongly Disagree
  16. The use of Children’s Socialization is understandable.
  17. Strongly Agree
  18. Agree
  19. Disagree
  20. Strongly Disagree
  21. Can performance effect on Children’s Socialization.
  22. Strongly Agree
  23. Agree
  24. Disagree
  25. Strongly Disagree
  26. Can you use the socialization in your study?
  27. Strongly Agree
  28. Agree
  29. Disagree
  30. Strongly Disagree
  31. Children Socio-Emotional Development effects the life of student.
  32. Strongly Agree
  33. Agree
  34. Disagree
  35. Strongly Disagree

Q.9      What were the findings and conclusion?

Findings:

I used scale structured interviews to get students’ responsestowards the use for the improvement of Socialization.Total students in this structured interview were 32.

Children’s Socialization motivate them in learning.
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
5 22 5 0
15.62% 68.75% 15.62% 0%
Children’s Socialization helping them to learningin different knowledge.
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
8 24 0 0
25% 75% 0% 0%
Children’s Socialization making them able tolearning in different content.
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
7 23 2 0
21.88% 71.88% 6.25% 0%
The use of Children’s Socialization is understandable.
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
2 25 5 0
6.25% 78.12% 15.62% 0%
Can performance effect on Children’s Socialization.
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
6 20 6 0
18.75% 62.5% 18.75% 0%
Can you use the socialization in your study?
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
2 26 4 0
6.25% 81.25% 12.5% 0%
Children Socio-Emotional Development effects the life of student
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
2 23 7 0
6.25% 71.88% 21.88% 0%

 

The first statement, “Children’s Socialization motivate them in learning”. This statement was used to know whether the Children’s Socialization improved students’Socialization to learning. There were 32 respondents who gave their opinion. It showed that 15.62% of the students were very motivated to learning using Children’s Socialization. It showed that 68.75% of the students were motivated to learning using Children’s Socialization.

The second statement is “Children’s Socialization helping them to learning”. So, about 25 % of the students were really helped by the use of Children’s Socialization to help them Socialization. It showed that 75 % of the students were helped by Children’s Socialization to learning in different content.

The third statement shows that there were 21.88 % of the students who thought that they were able to learning by using the Children’s Socialization.There were 71.88 % of the students could learning through motivation.

The next statement concluded that 6.25 % of the students could clearly understand with the steps used in Children’s Socialization.So,78.12 % of the students agreed that the steps in Children’s Socialization were understandable for them.

The next statement shows that more than 80 % of the students could get the Socialization from online lesson that would be used as the basic for them to develop and learning the lesson.

The sixth statement will show there were still 4 students who were not able to develop their Socialization.

The last statement showed so, there were more than 70 % of the students agreed that Socialization in Socialization were fun.

Conclusion:

From the result above, it can be seen that more than 50 % of thestudents responded that Children’s Socialization motivated them in Socialization. The use of Children’s Socialization was effective to motivate the students, helping them tolearning lesson in different content. After learned using Children’s Socialization, more than 70 % of the students were able to learning lesson in different content.It also shows that Children’s Socialization are understandable and fun for them.They could follow the steps in Children’s Socialization periods. More than 50 % of the students were able to get the key Socialization when they used Children’s Socialization.Then, they were able to develop the key Socialization into a lesson.Children’s Socialization also helped the students to understand the generic structure of texts. The result of this research revealed the improvements contributed by the implementation of the Children’s Socialization periods in the teaching and learning processof Socialization of elementary class of Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal. First, Children’s Socialization could improve students’ Socialization. It was able to engage the students’ attention and interests during the teaching and learning process of Socialization. Besides, Children’s Socialization could provide the students with illustrations and ideas in their minds. Second, the improvement could also be seen in the teaching and learning process.Children’s Socialization could be combined with other media such as pictures or video   create various fun learning Socialization so it decreased students’ boredom during their learning process in the classroom. The students became more confident to learning and active in the classroom Socialization. Third, since the students were motivated and the Socialization class ran well, the students’ Socialization were also improved.

Q.10    Summary of the Project.

This action research was conducted in Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal. The participants of study were elementary (8th) grade children and their teachers who were enrolled in Zaib Public School Lawa, Chakwal. I selected elementary (8th) grade children and their teachers which are considered in total 32 members.

Objective of this research are:

  1. To carried out Socializational effect on academic achievement at elementary level.
  2. To explore the use of Socialization on students.

Structured interview was used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of questions were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The structured interview was prepared to attain study objectives.

The first statement, “Children’s Socialization motivate them in learning”. This statement was used to know whether the Children’s Socialization improved students’learning. There were 32 respondents who gave their opinion. It showed that 15.62% of the students were very motivated to learning using Children’s Socialization. It showed that 68.75% of the students were motivated to learning using Children’s Socialization. The second statement is “Children’s Socialization helping them to learning”. So, about 25 % of the students were really helped by the use of Children’s Socialization to help them Socialization. It showed that 75 % of the students were helped by Children’s Socialization to learning in different content.

The third statement shows that there were 21.88 % of the students who thought that they were able to learning by using the Children’s Socialization.There were 71.88 % of the students could learning through motivation.

It was able to engage the students’ attention and interests during the teaching and learning process of Socialization. Besides, Children’s Socialization could provide the students with illustrations and ideas in their minds. Second, the improvement could also be seen in the teaching and learning process.Children’s Socialization could be combined with other media such as pictures or video that could create various fun learning Socialization so it decreased students’ boredom during their learning process in the classroom. The students became more confident to learning and active in the classroom Socialization. Third, since the students were motivated and the Socialization class ran well, the students’ Socialization were also improved.

Q.11    How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

I feel this practice is good for me; I have been through both good experiences and bad & I have a unique perspective. I do believe life is short and that the show goes on regardless; it’s important to try to place yourself in the current moment; live in the present; and just be. Problems can be at minimal if you have enough self-discipline to keep them at bay.

Self-Reflection:

I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.

I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grimmer. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.

The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here.  Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.

Q.12    What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Socialization.

  1. In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.
  2. This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.
  3. Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.
  4. Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and motivation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the itiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.
  5. Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.
  6. Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.

Q.13    List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition).

  • Bromley, K. (2019). Best Practices in Teaching Socialization. In L. Gambrel, ed., L. M. Morrow, ed., & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 243–264). New York: Guilford.
  • Brown, H. Douglas. (2019). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Content Pedagogy. 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Longman.
  • Calkins, L. (2019). The Art of Teaching Socialization. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Hyland, K. (2019). Second Content Socialization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Patten, B., Inclezan, D., Salazar, H., & Farley, A. (2020). Processing instruction and Dictogloss: A study on object pronouns and word order in Spanish. Foreign Content Annals, 42, 557–576.
  • Wajnryb, Ruth(2020). Grammer & learning Children’s Socialization. New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wallace, Trudy (2019). Teaching Learning, Listening and Socialization International Academy of Education (Educational Practices Series 1-14).
  • Williams, Melanie (2020). The TKT Course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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