CS101 Short Questions Full Book Virtual University
What is Cyber Crime?
Crimes committed with the use of computers or relating to computers, especially through the Internet. Universally, Cyber Crime is understood as “an unlawful act where the computer is either a tool or a target or both”. Cyber Crimes are different from conventional crimes as in cyber crimes; the crime is committed in an electronic medium and here men’s rea is not a requirement but is rather a general rule under the penal provisions of the Information Technology Act. The element of men’s rea in Internet crimes is that the offender must have been aware at the time of causing the computer to perform the function that the access thus intended to be secured was unauthorized.
What is the classification of Cyber Crime?
Tampering with computer source documents: Hacking: Publishing of information, which is obscene in electronic form Accessing protected system Breach of confidentiality and privacy.
Tell me about the Split ( delimiter ) string’s property.
The splint function returns an array of strings, created by splitting the string into substrings, at delimiter boundaries.
What is the word “Plug-in” means?
In the early ’90s, the Internet really started to take off in popularity, and the number of Web sites skyrocketed. There was suddenly a wide variety of people producing Web pages, and they had all sorts of multimedia content they wanted to be able to include. Rather than trying to change browsers to recognize and display these many different forms of content, Web innovators launched the idea of browser plug-ins. Plug-ins are programs that work with your browser to read and play a certain type of file. They are relatively small pieces of software, so it doesn’t take users forever to download them off the Internet. They are specifically designed to work with a particular type of file, so they can accomplish a lot of things that a basic browser can’t.
Can you tell me when a function calls itself what is this called?
It is called a “recursive call of a function”.When the function is called within itself, it is called a recursion or recursive call. The ability of a routine to call itself is called recursion. Recursion enables certain algorithms to be implemented with small, simple routines, but it does not guarantee speed or efficiency. Erroneous use of recursion can cause a program to run out of stack space during execution, causing the program, and sometimes the entire system, to crash.
Describe the ways of calling function.
There are two ways to call a function. 1) A function call appears as a complete statement. It happens when the function doesn’t return a value. 2) A function call appears as part of a statement. Definitions of such functions include a ‘return’ statement. It happens when the function returns a value.
Tell me about OnFocus and OnBlur.
- onBlur – form element loses focus or when a window or frame loses focus.
2) onFocus – window, frame, frameset, or form element receives focus. In the first case, an event will occur when the element will lose focus. In the second case, the event will occur when the element will receive focus.
What is the use of MsAcess?
MS Access is a Data Base Management System(DBMS) by Microsoft. A DBMS is a software package by which you can develop a database. You can insert, delete and update data into that database. You can develop reports and forms too.
I have confused about the concepts of 3-D and 2-D.
2D Graphics means showing graphics on two axes. Most of the graphics you see are 2D Graphics. 3D Graphics means showing Graphics in 3 axis
How does the RuleBased system work?
Rule-based Systems are based on the principles of logical reasoning and the ability of humans. Components of an RBS: –Rulebase –Working memory –Rule interpreter Robotics
What is Robotics?
Automatic machines perform various tasks that were previously done by humans. Example: –Pilot-less combat airplanes –Land-mine hunters –Autonomous vacuum-cleaners
How can I add sound effects to my presentation?
You select the object on which you want to have a sound effect and then right-click and you will see an option “Action Settings”, click on it and then select a sound from the list given.
Tell me about PowerPoint(PP), which is part of Multimedia. Would you compare it with other Multimedia like flash?
PowerPoint (PP) is intended to produce desktop presentations (e.g., driving a slide Projector) or to produce actual film slides (using a film recorder); it is not a tool for Web presentations. If you have a lot of presentations already In PP, you may be forced to try its HTML export features and may have problems with the resulting HTML (large file sizes, lots of garbage tags, poor image quality). If you’re fortunate enough to be starting from scratch, you’re better to stick with a tool designed and optimized specifically for the Web. Flash is used to prepare presentations, games, and animations so it is a much more powerful tool than Microsoft PowerPoint.
I have confused about open source and firmware.
Open Source Software’s available with their source code. Many are available on the internet, for example, the very famous Operating System LINUX is open source i.e. its source is available. Firmware is software embedded in the chips, for example, Programs in BIOS, etc.
Tell me about the interface.
The interface is the point of interaction or communication between a computer and any other entity, such as a printer or human operator.
Tell me about Processor Management and some simple example.
The heart of managing the processor comes down to two related issues:
1) Ensuring that each process and application receives enough of the processor’s time to function properly.
2) Using as many processor cycles for real work as is possible
What are MVS & VMS?
MVS is an operating system for mainframe computers. Both VMS and MVS are multi-user operating systems.
What is the meaning of GUI-based?
GUI (Graphical User Interface) based system facilitates the user to interact with the computer graphically like the use of windows.
What are word processing and desktop top publishing?
The art and science of converting written information into a form that looks pleasing when printed are called Word Processing. A combination of word processing and graphic design is called Desktop Publishing. Used to develop elegant documents
Examples: •Adobe PageMaker •Quark Press •Corel Ventura •MS Publisher What is the difference between “Object-based Language” and “Object Oriented Language”?
The object-oriented language supports inheritance, polymorphism, etc, while object-based don’t. Object-based languages use objects having their attributes/properties which can be modified according to our requirements.
What is the difference b/w “Programming” & “Scripting”?
Computer programming is a term to develop programs using some programming language. Computer Programming which makes the site work called script/programs which for example: call data from databases; make mailing systems work and control the content of the site.
I could not understand the execution of code in languages.
A program or software is developed by writing the code using some programming language when completed and then executed (to perform what is required) to test/implement that program or software.
What is the meaning of integration testing?
Integration testing is a logical extension of unit testing. In its simplest form, two units that have already been tested are combined into a component and the interface between them is tested. A component, in this sense, refers to an integrated aggregate of more than one unit. In a realistic scenario, many units are combined into components, which are in turn aggregated into even larger parts of the program.
The idea is to test combinations of pieces and eventually expand the process to test your modules with those of other groups.
Dynamically typed variables can hold any type of data and they could contain data of different type midway through the program. It is simple to develop short programs. As your question is concerned, I would like to say that each programming language has its own features depending on the requirements of the tasks for which that particular language is developed.
Explain Band Width.
Bandwidth has a general meaning of how much information can be carried in a given time period (usually a second) over a wired or wireless communications link. In digital systems, bandwidth is expressed as bits (of data) per second (bps).
What are protocols? Define these with some examples.
A set of rules or standards designed to enable computers to connect with one another and to exchange information with as little error as possible.
Please tell me what is Argument of function is.
When a function is called by a caller then sometimes it is required to pass some values to the function so that function receives these and processes those to perform its function. When a function is called, the arguments in the call are mapped to the arguments specified in the function definition on a one-to-one basis
I have some confusion about the server definition.
server 1) In general, a server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs in the same or other computers. 2) The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server (though it may contain a number of server and client programs). 3) In the client/server programming model, a server is a program that awaits and fulfills requests from client programs in the same or other computers. A given application in a computer may function as a client with requests for services from other programs and also as a server of requests from other programs.
What are utilities, and device drivers, and what are their functions? Utilities are small software that is used in the daily routine of computers for example Picture viewer, Hard Disk Formatter, Wallpaper Changer, etc. Device
Drivers are software that is necessary for a device to function properly, for example, Sound Card drivers, etc.
What are CGI and ASP scripts?
(Common Gateway Interface) — A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the ‘CGI program’) talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard. Usually, a CGI program is a small program that takes data from a web server and does something with it, like putting the content of a form into an e-mail message or turning the data into a database query. CGI “scripts” are just scripts that use CGI. ASP is also a scripting language to develop scripts.
What is an “Interpreted” language?
An interpreted program, sometimes called a script, is a program whose instructions are actually a logically sequenced series of operating system commands, handled one at a time by a command interpreter. An interpreted language supports interpreted programming.
What is the use of SDLC?
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is the overall process of developing information systems through a multi-step process from the investigation of initial requirements through analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance. There are many different models and methodologies, but each generally consists of a series of defined steps or stages.
Explain FTP & SMTP.
FTP is a client-server protocol that allows a user on one computer to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network. Also the client program the user executes to transfer files. One of the most useful services of the Internet is FTP. The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) delivers mail. The Distinct SMTP combined with the MIME component allows you to automate the encoding and sending of e-mail attachments. The SMTP component provides an interface to the mail delivery service, including the option of connecting via a firewall proxy server.
An application may use SMTP to send notifications, such as a report detailing logins to a secure system or information about hits on the company’s website, to a user via e-mail.
What is VPN?
A virtual private network (VPN) is a way to use a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization’s network. A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization. The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities but at a much lower cost. A VPN works by using the shared public infrastructure while maintaining privacy through security procedures and tunneling protocols such as the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). In effect, the protocols, by encrypting data at the sending end and decrypting it at the receiving end, send the data through a “tunnel” that cannot be “entered” by data that is not properly encrypted. An additional level of security involves encrypting not only the data but also the originating and receiving network addresses.
What is point 2 point topology?
The P2P acronym technically stands for “peer-to-peer” computer networking. Webopedia defines P2P as “A type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. This differs from client/server architectures, in which some computers are dedicated to serving others. ” What are bitmap graphics and vector graphics and differences between them?
In Vector Graphics A shape maintains its identity i.e. it doesn’t mix in other shapes. Shapes of Vector Graphics are independent of Resolution. The size of Vector Graphics files is very small. In bitmap Graphics A shape does not maintain its identity i.e. it is mixed in other shapes. Shapes of Vector Graphics are not independent of the Resolution
i.e. they lose quality on different resolutions. The size of Vector Graphics files is not much small.
What is the difference between “Compiler” and “Interpreter”?
A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language (source code) and turns them into machine language or “code” that a computer’s processor uses. The compiler converts the source code into object code only once. It doesn’t need to every time this conversion while executing. The interpreter does the same thing but it converts the code line by line each time while executing the program.
What is the purpose of the switch statement as we have an IF conditional statement?
If and switch statements are used to perform particular tasks against one or more conditions. We use a switch statement If the action is to be taken of the value of a single variable (or a single expression). In this case, we normally know the expected values of a variable or expression. We use the ‘if…else’ structure when the action depends on the values of multiple variables (or expressions).
What is the simple meaning of a loop? What is the concept behind the “while” and “for” loop structures?
Loop is a sequence of instructions that repeats a specified number of times or until a particular condition prevails. We use for loop to repeat a task to some specified numbers, on the other hand, we use a while loop, for some condition
What is the meaning of “thumb rule”?
Meaning According to a rough and ready rule. Description A rule of thumb is an easy-to-remember guideline that isn’t necessarily a hard-and-fast rule or scientific formula but it’s more than just a dumb guess. For centuries rule of thumb has been used as an estimated measurement by many craftsmen including carpenters, brewers, and tailors.
Tell me about heuristics is it experience or general judgment which is gotten after a long period of working am I right?
Heuristics is the application of experience-derived knowledge to a problem. What is the function of the array that also describes the compound statement?
The array is an indexed list of elements used to store multiple values. Compound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect or control the execution of other statements in some way.
What is the function of HUB if more than one computer tries to communicate simultaneously?
Such a situation in a network is called a collision. Different protocols avoid collision in different ways. For example, in the token ring protocol, which computer has a token only that can send messages to others, so only one computer can send data at one time.
What is the difference between the application & system software?
System software is a program that generally performs the background tasks in a computer. These programs, many times, talk directly to the Hardware e.g.
Operating system software, Device drivers while Application software is programs that generally interact with the user to perform work that is useful to the user.
These programs generally talk to the hardware through the assistance of system software e.g., scientific, or business applications.
What are the main utilities of forms?
Forms are used to get/post user data. This data could be either required by the website (e.g. order taking form) or user request (e.g. use of search engine). These help in passing the variables to the other page.
How I can introduce a button for browsing?
You can bring the browse button by setting the Type property of the Input tag to “File” like this Input type=File
What is batch mode?
In batch mode, computers take data and keep on processing it and require no interaction by the user. A daily-life example of this is a Printing press machine that takes a plate and then keeps on printing the papers.
What is a batch file?
A batch file is a text file that contains a sequence of commands for a computer operating system. It’s called a batch file because it batches (bundles or packages) into a single file a set of commands that would otherwise have to be presented to the system interactively from a keyboard one at a time. A batch file is usually created for command sequences for which a user has a repeated need. Commonly needed batch files are often delivered as part of an operating system. You initiate the sequence of commands in the batch file by simply entering the name of the batch file on a command line.
Why do we use algorithms and what is their practical use?
Once we find an algorithm for solving a problem, we do not need to re-discover it the next time we are faced with that problem
•Once an algorithm is known, the task of solving the problem reduces to following (almost blindly and without thinking) the instructions precisely
•All the knowledge required for solving the problem is present in the algorithm
What is the Spaghetti Design Methodology?
Spaghetti Design Methodology is an unstructured programming technique. It doesn’t have any sense, structure, design, or discipline. It’s very hard to maintain as well as enhance them. It’s so popular the reason behind it is that it doesn’t need any extra effort, programming knowledge, or skills. So that’s why it’s so common.
Tell me about the Prompt and Instance of an object.
An instance is an object, in object-oriented programming, in relation to the class to which it belongs. For example, an object myList that belongs to a class List is an instance of the class List. In command-driven systems, one or more symbols indicate where users are to enter commands. For instance, in MS-DOS, the prompt is generally a drive letter followed by a greater than symbol (C>).
How can we differentiate between DIMM and SIMM?
DIMM (dual in-line memory module), is a small circuit board that holds memory chips. A single in-line memory module (SIMM) has a 32-bit path to the memory chips whereas a DIMM has a 64-bit path.
What does FPU mean?
A floating point unit (FPU), also known as a numeric coprocessor, is a microprocessor or special circuitry in a more general microprocessor that manipulates numbers more quickly than the basic microprocessor your computer uses. It does so by having a special set of instructions that focus entirely on large mathematical operations. A floating point unit is often built into today’s personal computers, but it is needed only for special applications such as graphic image processing or display. Personal computers that don’t have floating point units can sometimes handle software that requires them by installing a floating point emulator.
Is the Microcontroller resembles ROM?
ROM means that the instructions inside that chip are only readable, it can not be modified. So in this sense, these microcontrollers are ROM. Otherwise, Microcontrollers are just like Microprocessors.
How does heat sink works?
Heat Sink takes the heat from Microprocessor and spreads it in the environment so heat is not gathered over Processor.
What is a USB port?
USB (Universal Serial Bus) Universal Serial Bus is a relatively new connector that was meant to replace Serial and Parallel ports. It’s a flat, keyed connector with four contacts that was designed for mid-speed peripherals such as scanners, keyboards, mice, joysticks, printers, modems, and some CD-ROMs. USB is unique in that it is completely hot-swappable. In other words, you can plug it in or unplug it while the computer is on. Your computer should recognize it as soon as it’s plugged in, and you should have use of the device immediately. USB allows you to daisy-chain up to 127 devices. This means that you could have a joystick plugged in, with a printer plugged into that, and a scanner plugged into the printer, etc.
Who was the first programmer of the computer, and what progamme does he design?
The world’s first programmer was Ada Byron who write a program for the Analytical engine of Babbage.
What is a search engine?
A search engine is a coordinated set of programs that includes: A spider (also called a “crawler”) that goes to every page or representative page on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site’s other pages A program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a “catalog”) from the pages that have been read. A program that receives your search request, compares it to the entries in the index and returns results to you Search engine is a computer program that tries to find new web pages on the web and if it found any term and keyword which is new, it just stores this keyword or term into its index list and the address of the corresponding web site. www.google.com is an example of a search engine.
What is the working of HTTP in our world wide web?
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol (rules to follow during communication) used by the World Wide Web (WWW) and allows communications between linked computers all over the world. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions a web server and browser should take in response to various commands.
What is a plotter?
The device is used to draw charts, diagrams, and other line-based graphics. Plotters use either pens or electrostatic charges and toner (The powdered pigment that is used in office copiers and in laser, LED, and LCD printers. Pen plotters draw on paper or transparencies with one or more colored pens. Electrostatic plotters “draw” a pattern on electrostatically charged dots on the paper and then apply toner and fuse it in place. Plotters use three basic types of paper handling: flatbed, drum, and pinch roller. Flatbed plotters hold the paper still and move the pen along both the x and y axes. Drum plotters roll the paper over a cylinder. The pen moves along one axis while the drum, with the paper attached, moves along the other. Pinch-roller plotters are a hybrid of the two, in which the pen moves only along one axis while the paper is moved back and forth by small rollers.
What is the difference between the Mainframe computer and the Supercomputer?
A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both). At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicized supercomputers that operate at the very latest and always incredible
speeds. A mainframe computer is a very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they
support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.
What is the main difference between VCD and DVD?
DVD (digital versatile disc) is an optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the CD-ROM disc (as well as the audio compact disc) over the next few years. The digital versatile disc (DVD) holds 4.7 gigabytes of information on one of its two sides, or enough for a 133-minute movie. VCD (also called video CD, video compact disc, or “disc”) is a compact disk format based on CD-ROM XA that is specifically designed to hold MPEG-1 video data. VCD resolution is far short of the resolution of DVD. Each VCD disk holds 72-74 minutes of video and has a data transfer rate of 1.44 Mbps.
What are Embedded Computers? Do they have all the parts of hardware that normal PCs have?
Embedded Computers are in fact small chips that are programmed to do some specific task like the Microprocessor of a PC. Examples include SIMs of Mobile sets, chips in machines of daily usage, etc. These don’t contain all those parts that a simple PC has.
what is the purpose of a transistor?
The transistor, invented by three scientists at the Bell Laboratories in 1947, rapidly replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic signal regulator. A transistor regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals.
What is the true definition of a Computer? Is a computer a device or an electronic machine?
A lot of definitions are there for computers. Here are some simple definitions.
1)A device that accepts data, processes the data in accordance with a stored program, generates results, and usually consists of input, output, storage, arithmetic, logic, and control units.
2) A functional unit that can perform substantial computation, including numerous arithmetic operations or logic operations, without human intervention during a run.
Please explain the Turning Machine in a bit more detail. How did it play part in the evolution of computers?
It was introduced by Alan Turing in 1936, Turing machines are one of the key abstractions used in modern computability theory, the study of what computers can and cannot do. A Turing machine is a particularly simple kind of computer, one whose operations are limited to reading and writing symbols on a tape, or moving along the tape to the left or right. The tape is marked off into squares, each of which can be filled with at most one symbol. At any given point in its operation, the Turing machine can only read or write on one of these squares, the square located directly below its “read/write” head.
What is the difference b/w a network and the internet?
Two or more computers connected to communicate with each other form a network. The Internet, sometimes called simply “the Net,” is a worldwide system of computer networks – a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).
Describe the Domain, Domain name & Protocol.
1) In general, a domain is an area of control or a sphere of knowledge.
2) On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain is organized into levels. The top level identifies geographic or purposes commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or a category such as “commercial”). The second level identifies a unique place within the top-level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet (an IP address). Lower levels of the domain may also be used.
3) Protocols are the set of rules followed by computers during communication.
What is the difference between HYPERLINK and HYPER MEDIA?
Essentially, hypermedia is the modern extension of hypertext, the hyperlinked, text–based documents of the original Internet. Hypermedia attempts to offer a working and learning environment that parallels human thinking—that is, one in which the user can make associations between topics, rather than move sequentially from one to the next, as in an alphabetic list. An image or portion of text on a Web page that is linked to another Web page, either on the same site or in another Web site is called a Hyperlink. via email means through email.
What is a URL?
When a user enters a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in a browser, he/she sends an HTTP command to the web server directing it to retrieve and transmit the requested document. A URL is the global address of a website. The first part of the address (i.e., http://) indicates which protocol is to be used. The second part specifies the IP address (i.e., http://www.ectag.org), which identifies the unique server assigned to the domain name (URL). The final part tells the server where the document or resource is located on the server.
How much is the storage capacity of a punch card?
The punch cards are used for the storage of data of the different types and their storage capacity is different with respect to the kind of data stored in them the normal storage capacity was 1000 words of 50 decimal digits used to hold variables and results.
What is Quantum Mechanics?
Factoring a number with 400 digits–a numerical feat needed to break some security codes–would take even the fastest supercomputer in existence billions of years. But a newly conceived type of computer, one that exploits quantum-mechanical interactions, might complete the task in a year or so, thereby defeating many of the most sophisticated encryption schemes in use. Sensitive data are safe for the time being because no one has been able to build a practical quantum computer. But researchers have now demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. Such a computer would look nothing like the machine that sits on your desk; surprisingly, it might resemble the cup of coffee at its side. Several research groups believe quantum computers based on the molecules in a liquid might one day overcome many of the limits facing conventional computers. Roadblocks to improving conventional computers will ultimately arise from the fundamental physical bounds to miniaturization (for example, because transistors and electrical wiring cannot be made slimmer than the width of an atom). Or they may come about for practical reasons–most likely because the facilities for fabricating still more powerful microchips will become prohibitively expensive. Yet the magic of quantum mechanics might solve both of these problems.
What is the difference between “Internet & Intranet”?
An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the wide area network. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees. An intranet can also be used to facilitate working in groups and for teleconferences. The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols – a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers) What is the use of Java applets in World Wide Web?
Java Applets are objects which are developed in Java and then embedded in the HTML pages and they are downloaded on the Client machine. Applets can be used for some animation or some other processing to avoid congestion in network traffic.
What about the machine cycle?
The machine cycle is a set of four basic operations repeated by the control unit 1. fetching an instruction 2. decoding the instruction 3. executing the instruction and if necessary 4. storing the result. The time it takes to fetch is called instruction time, or f-time, and the time it takes to decode and execute is called execution time or E-time. Adding together f-time and E-time gives the total time required for a machine cycle. The machine cycle is also called the instruction cycle.
Difference Between Fragmentation and Defragmentation?
In fragmentation parts of a file have become fragmented through rewriting and updating. A defragger physically restores the file to contiguous sectors on a hard disk to speed up access by as much as 75 percent. This is also called the process of defragmentation or “defragging;”
Explain the Difference between Transactional Processing and Real-Time Processing.
Real-time processing that process information at the same rate as they receive data, enabling them to direct or control a process. Transaction processing is a processing method in which transactions are executed immediately after they are received by the system. Transaction processing and real-time processing are almost the same things.
what is a Micro-Controller?
A microcontroller is a complete computer on a chip but it does not contain large amounts of memory. They have their own processor and low memory.
Microcontrollers are used in video games, videocassette recorders (VCRs), and automobiles.
What is the purpose of the attribute “Action” in the “Form” Tag?
The “Action” attribute specifies the file that takes action against the form submission. In fact, the value of the “Action” attribute in the “Form” tag is always a URL(Uniform Resource Locator). This URL represents the path of that file which has to take some action when u submit your form. For example, When u fill ur a form for an email address on free email services ( like Yahoo or Hotmail ), and press the “submit” button,u r given an error if u have missed any field and congratulated if u have done well, that all validation is done by that file whose URL is given in that form’s Action attribute.
What are Literals?
Literals are simply literally-written things, like a number or a string of characters. Numbers are, in turn, treated as either integers (1,2,3, ….) or real (12.3, 5.21e23,………………………………………………………………………………….) depending on how they are written. Strings or String literals are surrounded by quotation marks (either single quotes or double quotes). For example Example:: In instance, x=12345 12345 is literal (integer) In eg, x=12.43 12.43 is literal (real) In eg, Var x = y*5.21e4 5.21e4 is literal (real) In eg, var string =’ that’ “that” is literal String In eg, var answer = actual; true is literal Boolean For string literals, you need special sequences to type to enter things like carriage returns, tabs, etc. These are listed in a separate document.
Why do we use a microcontroller instead of a microprocessor?
The Micro-controllers are designed to perform some specific tasks. Unlike microprocessors, they cannot operate independently because they do not have RAM of their own. Micro-controllers are embedded as part of various devices/equipment e.g. Micro Wave Ovens, Televisions, Air conditioners, security systems, etc. The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that has three major portions:
1) Arithmetic Unit
2) Control Unit
3) Data Bus/Registers and is capable of performing tasks independently.
What is a word processor?
A program used to create, format, modify, save for later use, and print documents. The key advantage of a word processor is its ability to make changes easily, such as correcting spelling, changing margins, or adding, deleting, and relocating entire blocks of text. Once created, the document can be printed quickly and accurately and saved for later modifications.
Why Internet Explorer & Netscape Navigator are available for free? Initially, Netscape Navigator was not free but ever since Internet Explorer was launched by Microsoft, it is provided free with different products like Windows, MS Office, etc. forcing manufacturers of Netscape to distribute it free of cost. This was also a strategic move to break the market of Netscape Navigator. While Netscape was maturer in technology as well as stable in performance due to free availability, Internet Explorer gained a lot of popularity.
How do I know that my email has been received?
When using any email client to send and receive email messages, there is an option, which is used to have confirmation of email delivery/reading. That is when the user receives the email, a confirmation mail is sent back to the sender. Certain other email clients can also be configured to send a message even when the message is displayed on the screen of the recipient’s computer.
Why Multiple processors are used in Super Computers?
One very powerful processor is a lot more expensive than thousands of small processors. Multiple processors running in parallel can perform tasks as efficiently as the single most powerful chip available but at a lot less cost. Hence it is very economical to use multiple smaller processors working in parallel than a single powerful processor in supercomputers.
What is the Capacity of Cache memory?
There are two types of cache. Internal & external. The capacity of internal as well as external cache varies from processor to processor i.e. Intel P-III 1 GHz has a cache memory of size 512 KB and Intel Celeron 1GHz processor has cache memory varying from 128 to 256 KB.
Classify the different types of memory.
Main memory (usually RAM: Random Access Memory) 2. ROM (Read Only Memory used to hold BIOS (Basic Input Output System)) 3. Cache Memory (on both board & processor) 4. Virtual memory(RAM on disk) (Note: Keep the difference between memory and storage in mind.)
What is Virtual memory?
A part of disk storage can be made to behave like RAM. This is known as Virtual Memory. When a file or program is too big for the computer to work within its memory, part of the data is stored on a disk. This virtual storage is divided into segments called pages; each page is correlated with a location in physical memory, or RAM. When a page, which is not currently in the main memory, is referenced, it is swapped into memory and is sent back to disk when other pages must be called and loaded into the main memory in place of the old one. The program runs as if all the data is in memory.
What is Bus?
A set of conductors, which connect the functional units in a computer. It is called a bus because it travels to all destinations (Actually it is like a network of connected roads used by data to travel from one part to another). There are local buses that connect elements within the CPU and buses which connect the computer to external memory and peripherals. The bus width determines the speed of data transmission. Most personal computers use 32-bit buses both internally and externally. Internal buses are configured in parallel; there are also serial busses between computers in networks (usually).
What is Batch Processing Computer System?
A system that takes a set (a “batch”) of commands or jobs, executes them, and returns the results, all without human intervention. This contrasts with an interactive system where the user’s commands and the computer’s responses are interleaved during a single run.
What is hardware?
Everything in a computing environment that has physical attributes, like, carries weight, has a definite shape, and is touchable, is called hardware. e.g. Monitor, Keyboard, CPU, printer, mouse, etc. are all hardware.
After the successful completion of this course, will I be able to make my own Web pages and host them on the net?
Yes after the completion of this course students will be able to make simple static web pages and host them on the net.